Rousseau was an Genevan philosopher, writer, composer of eighteen century. His philosophy influenced the French revolution as well as the overall development of the modern political, sociological and educational thoughts. His novel Emile is the critisize on the education of the whole person
for cilizenship. He was also the successful composer of music.
SUMMARY OF BOOK ONE :
Every thing is good as it leaves to its nature, the creater of these things. In the hand of the man every thing destroyes eveything degenerates. Man mixes every thing he wants the tree to bear the fruit of another tree. Man don’t want the thing to keep at their nature. Even he don’t want his own child to be keep on nature . if we want to keep the things on their own nature then we need to train the man as a saddle horse. Wihtout this every thing would be worse. If the man is left to its orignal birthnthen he would be most disfigured of all.
Prejudice, authority and necessity are social conditionin which we all are submerged. Child is like a seedling who has grown in the middest of the high way of life. Struggling but soon crushed by people who are passing by . By addressing the mother Rossuaee said that it is moythers responsibility to keep the child away from this world. He used the words like tender and far sighted for mothers. Cultivate and water your your young p,lant before it dies. Form your impact encloser around your child’s soul. Hold your childs heart and built him a great personality. One day this innocent child will give you true happiness. Plants are managed, arranged and fashioned by cultivation like this children be built by Education. He has to know how to use his best abilities and qualities , other wise the child may lost his abilities by seeking help from others. If we left the child on his own then might be he will die because of missery and incomfort before knowing his needs ansd ways to fullfillit. Child born week lacking and stupid we need help , aid and adjustment and all these are provided by education. This education comes to us by nature , from men or from things. The education of nature is beyond our control. Now lets try to define the word “nature”. Nature is our own habits and thoes habits that conform to nature. Rossuea states that in this way we can keep away confusion.
Rossuae argues that we are raising the children for others not for himself. Here we need to decide either narure or social institutions. We have to choose between making a man and making a citizen.These both can’t be at the same time.
He gives the example of Spartan Pedaretes when rejected by the three hundred spartian for council, he was happy that at least there are three hundred ppeople who defeat me. Like this Spartian mother when her five children died in war remain happy and have a concern with her country’s success. Rossuae’s strong point is that he clearly declared that one who has a contradiction between wishes and duties will be nither a man nor a citizen. He will be good nither for himself nor for others.He will the man of the days a “Bourgeois”.
SUMMARY OF BOOK TWO:
This is the second stage of life when infancy period ends and child starts speaking words. He said that the purpose of cry ios just to take attention when the child starts speaking words then his habbit of crying reduces. Roussaeu is against to keep the child safely and take too much care of him. He wants the child to take life experience of injury, pain and danger. In this way he tries to develop his senses. Another progress which makes tears less necesary to children is the development of their strengths, become able to do most of their work by themselves. He considered the life uncertain . he want the man to be treated as man and child as child, he calls it what suits our condition. He wants the child to taste the true happiness for this he first has to taste the pain. “Every sentiment of pain is inseperable for the desire to get rid of it and every idea of pleasure is inseperable for the desire to enjoy it”p.218
The self desire in human is self preservation then comes the imagination. Its imagination which proceeds our actioneither evil or good. The man is week means he has less strength to fullfill his needs.for learning human institution are the masses of faulty assumptions and contradictions.
According to roussaeu actual conscious life began at sixty. He has suggested for man to confine his existence inside himself and he will be very happy. He takles freedom as a basic principal for childhood education. Society weekend the man by multiplying his desires with his strength and shows him week. The man has desires and childs have whims which are not true needs and these desires are satisfied by others. He recommanded creative dependency fro the child but against of giving the cammand or order to the child. He didn’t give the right even to the fathers to put orser on the growing child. Keep the child dependent on things not on man. He could be grown up in occordance wir th the natural laws.
Roussaeu is very strick about child development and said that your child must not get what he wants but what he needs. He must never act from obedience but from necessity. He has to develop in the sence that there should be no vocabulary or command or instructions to follow.
In the book Emile the dialogues are given between a child and a master who is teaching not to do this or that and the child is not agree to obey. Let the child be on nature. Children have their ways to learn about right and wrong. He himself will drawn conculusions. By imposing our own critearea of right and wrong we will make them the ones who know how to obey the command.
Treat the pupil according to their age and let them enjoy the age do’t try to pull them out of it. He suggested well regulated freedom for children. He wants to provide thye complete feedom of age to the children and suggested to put the room be furnished with plain and solid furniture, no mirror and any other luxury objects. Inspite of all care if the child break something don’t punish him.
He explains ‘negative ‘education for the children. The first education should be purely negtiveup to yhe age of twelve. Even idf the child could not distinguish his left and right hand it doesn’t matters. Roussaeu point out that wise man takes time to observe nature. He wants to keep the Emile awy from societal customs, rules, regulations and miserable views. Commenting on traditional education system he says that we teachethe child about their duties not about their rights. By intertacting with elders he learns that respect elders and stronger then he can’t save himself from danger. Addressing the teachers he suggested actions or practical teaching skillsrather than speeches. If theemile broke few of his things don’t provide it again let him to feel the absence of these things. Children should not be get punishment as a punishment but it could be come as a consequence of their own bad actions. He is against of teaching full language at this early stage of life wants only sounds or figures. “Emile will never learn any thing by heart, cultivation of childs mind is essential.”
Roussaeu wants the child to be dresed loosely and comfortably so that he will be differtiated from man. Emile may not wear any thing on head. Let the children be drink cold and fresh water and give them bath in winter but the temperature of water should be moderate . after playing let them drink cold water. Let the emile play on uncomfortable bed the experience of discon]mfort makes their life comfortable. The games should be swim, run, jump, spin a top, throw stones to strengthen the arms and legs. Let them learn measure, count, weigh and compare.
Improve the jugemental ability of the child. About teaching th roussaeu is in the opinion that it is a trade at which one must be able to lose time and save it. Teach them geometry don’t use words or definitions, let them draw and examine different shapes. Flying a kite is a training for eye and hand coordination and accuracy. Teach the children to spell plainly and distinctlynot be in hurry to teach in to read and write, let them to understand music.
Don’t stimulate the child’s appitite but just satisfy him. He is in the idea that the children involve in games and other activities didn’t feel hungry, let them play, don’t distrube them.
Improve the sixth sence of the children , which starts its development when al, five sences are used perfectly. This sixth sence is very helpful in organizing creativity and intuition.
In this way the child may be able to find his oen strengths and weekneses. He know how to find his wn strengths and weekneses. He knows how to find the solution of the problems. He rely on his own abilities and in this way he proves himself more stronger, judgemental and confident then the other peer group. A child developed with so much care is nothing but a rough little boy.
SUMMARY OF BOOK THREE:
This book describs the intellectual development of the Emile . this education should aalso based on childs own nature. When he is ready to learn and takes interest in languages, geography, history and science. The learning should ge related to childs own way of activites. He will learn language through normal conversational activity. The motion of the sun leads him to the natural phenomenaof astronomy. Through his pwn garden the knowledge of natural science generates. Finally Emile is taught the trade of carpentry in order to prepare him for an occupation in life.
IMPLICATIONS IN EDUCATION:
Rossuae’s philosophy ‘Naturalism’ recommanded that Elementry education for the children would be more natural and based on real life experiences. He is against of books at this stage. Nature is the good tutor for him he learn more in the hands of nature. He do’t want the child to keep inthe hands of this corrupt society. As the philosophy talks about the limitations of care, love and directions given to the child. This Rousseau’s philosophy wants to make the chil brillient, self dependent and confident. One who is able to take disions , who who will be capable of facing challenges and hazards of life.
The analyses of the existing educational system in the light of these philosophical concepts shows that the present declining of educational index might be a proof of that we are not including these philosopycal concepts in our teaching learing processes. As Plato talked about free and education for all. In most of our educational lanning and implimentation we are moving against philosophical thoughts of these great philosophers. Our primary education mostly depend on books and writting, not focussing on childs sensational and muscles development . our whole educational system is based on faulty assumption of childs psychological and mental development. In short it can be said that if we apply all the philosophical views of all our great philosophers we cn best develop a system through which we can get humans rather than citizens, individuals or works.