Topic: The Republic by Plato
Plato was the famous Greek philosopher. He was born in Athens, in a noble family. He was inspired by Socrates and was being his students. Plato was the teacher of Aristotle the great thinker. Plato served his life for the Educational field. He introduced a great concept of Education in his book “The Republic”.
Introduction of the book “The Republic”:
In the book “The Republic” Plato has suggested appropriate kind of Education for the ruling and military classes of community. He presented some logical principles of ethics and politics. His great achievement was “The Republic”. He described some important part of education in this book. He talked about curriculum as well as very beautiful reality of life. In the law Plato repeats that “Education is the first and fairest thing that the best of men can ever have”.
“The Republic” and its different parts:
In this book Plato has presented his ideas in following sections.
. Enlightenment or unenlightenment of nature:
He has given the idea of a man who lives in den where the man cannot see the reality of life. From childhood he opens his life in den. After sometime he can see only a fire from distance and as he goes near to the reality of that he finds another perception. As he sees water he can see only his reflection, and when he sees sun he can peruse that this is the source of light. Then he realizes unenlightenment to enlightenment. As like this rulers should not be un-educated or so much over educated that must be forced down again among the captives in the den to partake of their labors and honors.
. Former education:
He was talking about the former education. Because he thought that it can be the cause to bring soul into dark to bright. According to him former education has two branches one is “gymnastic” and another is “music”. It can maintain natural harmony between mind and literature. He was talking about arithmetic also where he was describing that it stimulates class which suggest contrast and relation. For example, like that a finger does not arouse thought unless involving some conception of plurality, but when the one is also the opposite of one’ the contradiction gives rise to reflection, an example of this is afforded by any object of sight.
. Second branch of Education:
Second branch of education he described as geometry. He said that the skill of knowledge can be double in this. The geometry is always talking about squaring, subtending, opposing in view action. It elevates the soul, and creates the mind of philosophy.
. Third branch of education:
Astronomy he found as third branch of education. The knowledge of heavens is necessary at once for husbandry, navigation, and military tactics. Astronomy as studied at present appears to draw the soul not upwards, but downwards. Only by problems can we have place astronomy on a truly scientific basis. Pythagoreans can be applied in astronomy as the part of mathematics. All scientific subjects are connected to each other and it tell us about absolute truth.
He further described that dialectic alone rises to the principle which is above hypotheses, converting and gently leading the eye of the soul out of the upper world. It is also defined as the science which defines and explains the essence or being of each nature. Dialectics distinguishes abstract the good get ready to be battle against the opponents of good. It is represented the way darkness to light.
. Division of knowledge stages:
He divided education as four stages, one is there is early education of a child and fancies of the poet, and in the law and costoms of the state. Then second is when there is a training of the body to be a warrior athlete. Third stage is completion of the education of training and the last stage when a man enters to dialectics (analysis of vision).
. Early childhood education:
He described that when a child born the first education of a child is given by his parents. Then the child sends to the school where he learns many ethics, discipline which is the necessarily of his life. He studies many things like music, where he learns to get harmony in his soul. Then the child sends back to the gymnastic master to be strong and tough to face the difficulties of lives.
. Religious and moral values:
He also presented some idea about religious and moral values. In that time everyone was running after wealth. He thought that now the concept of wealth must be changed. It can be like old Greek society into Modern Greek society. Society must be well organized and should have wisdom for others. According to him education can be considered as welfare for the society, and the universal truth is this where men should be united.
. Plato’s ways of learning:
Many illustrations of this part of the Republic may found in modern politics and in daily life. The main idea of his theory is there are some disorders of eye sights, those who see not far in the distance means they engage with their lives, those people limited on their own; they could not see the real spirituality. Another example is those who can prejudice the narrowness of world to comprehend them.
In this Plato has dealt with Education in detail. It was all about public education. It is observed that the idea which was given by Plato is what we are following now a day in Modern Education. He has sketched an idealized education of a Greek youth in this piece of writing. The system of education presented by Plato was supposed to discover the potentialities of an individual to develop the qualities for the membership in that class where nature has fitted him.