Ibn-e-Khuldoon, the Great Muslim Philosopher and Educationist
Ibn-e- Khaldun was an intelligent man. He was brought up to be a man of great knowledge and wisdom; an expert at the subjects of history and politics. He is the very first scientist who has left a permanent mark on the sciences of historiography and sociology (Shahid, 2000).
Ibn-e- Khaldun attributes his origin to the Yemenite Arabs of Hadramaut, and describes him as a scion of one of the oldest Arab Yemenite tribes (Enan, 1986). Khaldun belonged to a prominent and learned Arab family, and he inherited both material and spiritual heritage of his forefathers.
Ibn-e-Khaldun's first teacher was his own father.From him he learnt the Holy Quran by heart, studied different modes of recitation and interpretation, as well as Hadith and jurisprudence. He also learned Arabic grammar, language and rhetoric from the most famous and well–known teachers of Tunis. Tunis at the time was a center of learning in Africa, and Ibn-e- Khaldun took full advantage of the scholastic opportunities available there (Enan, 1986 & Khalid, 2012). Khaldun himself was an eminent orator (Khalid, 2012). His writings proved his brilliance to a certain extent in Hadith and Maliki Jurisprudence, philosophy and poetry (Enan, 1986).
Ibn-e-Khaldun had an adventurous soul! He migrated to various places, and served different masters. When North Africa split into different principalities, he moved to the principality of Morocco named Fez. There he was appointed the Secretary of the state by Sultan Abu Inan of Fez. He then moved to the Straits of Gibraltar and became the Fief – holder of the Sultan of Granada and later headed a political mission to Pedro, the cruel King of Castile. Granada did not seem to be exciting of Khaldun because of his conflict with one of the wazirs. He moved on to the court of Prince of Jejaya, near Constantine and left Spain. He went back to Granada in 1374 but again got expelled back to Africa where he got retired and compiled his famous Prolegomena – Muqaddmah in a fort of Qilah-Ibne-Salamah. The Prolegomena is said to be his fined thesis and study in the subject of history. It presents his contributions to political and social philosophy. He went to Cairo and spent rest of his there. During his stay at Cairo he also went to perform Hajj at Makkah. In Cairo he held the post of Chief Justice and also lectured huge audiences with ease and success. He compiled his history of the Universe mainly of Arabs and Berbers in 1382. Khaldun left the world in 1406 and died in peace (Khalid, 2012 & Shahid, 2000).