Thursday, June 3, 2010

Pragmatism as a school of Philosophy

"Pragmatism is a temper of mind, an attitude, it is also a theory of the nature of ideas and truth and finally it is a theory about reality.” William James

The Revolution: A Prehistoric novel

The word pragmatism is derived from the Greek word “Pragma” which means Practice . Pragmatists firmly hold that the meaning of concepts lie in their practical consequences, and knowledge develops from practice.According to Peirce, a great pragmatis, if we need to know the meaning of the word hard , we have to carry out an experiment. The experiment is we have to scratch something and find the effect of scratching. If the thing is easily scratched, it is soft, if not, it is hard.

The Slave: A novel from the prehistoric past of humanity

Theoretical Versus Pragmatic Attitude
Philosophers have identified two different types of human interests that generate knowledge and understanding of something. One is called pragmatic, and the other one is called theoretical. Theoretical interest is rooted in the feeling of wonder. If I feel wonder what these starts are , I would certainly try to know about them and start my inquiry about the stars.

Sometimes a person wonders what this universe is? Where it has come from? Who created it? Why I am here in this World? Such questions are the result of the feeling of wonder, and develop a theoretical interest in humans. They don't want any material benefit while they address these questions. Such an attitude is called theoretical attitude.

The other attitude towards things is pragmatic. I want to know how I can reach a spot? or how I can get a job? How can I educate others? Such questions are pragmatic, for the knowledge solves a problem. This knowledge is a result of my practical copncerns, and not theoretical concerns. This type of knowledge is called pragmatic.

Pragmatism Vs Idealism
 Idealists believe that it is the knowledge or the idea , that leads practice, but pragmatism holds that ideas are constructed from experience. First comes the practice , and then on its basis, principles and ideas are derived. Hence, pragmatism is also known as Experimentalism or consequentialism as opposed to idealism.

Dewey holds Plato responsible for giving ideas undue priority over existence. Plato, one of the greatest ever exponents of idealism, was responsible for reversing the relationship between idea and practice . According to Khalid, Wasim and Shams(2007):

"Dewey criticized Greek philosophers for presenting an epistemologically erroneous view of reality. Since Greeks were freemen and did not have to participate in the production process; therefore, they simply neglected the importance of process and eulogized the outcome. This resulted in Greek idealism, which erroneously considered essences as the cause of existence.On the other hand, Dewey thinks that ideas are the outcomes of the experience of existing things, and contends that Greek philosophy inverted the order of things and considered the idea, the effect, as the cause of the existing things and thus committed a fallacy. It disregarded the actual course of experience in the formation of knowledge and misconceived the nature of knowledge itself. "

One Application of this view, as quoted in (Khalid, Wasim and Shams, 2007), is found in Dewey's educational thought. Criticizing traditional educational way of teaching Ideas and theories prior to experience Dewey says:

"What Dewey has said in the chapter titled ‘Science in the Course of Study’ in his ‘Democracy and Education’, suggests that ideas should not be given priority over the actual course of experience in education. Children should not be first taught and then asked to verify concepts and theories through their experiences. Rather, they should be expected to formulate their ideas with the aid of their experience through following the process of inquiry. Thus, Dewey establishes a priority of experience over theory and fixed concepts."

Pragmatism is also called experientalism because pragmatists believe experience as the only basis for knowdge. For pragmatists, there is no absolute or fixed truth and value. Concepts are not predetermined and absolute. Knowdge and values are pragmatic and change if the underlying human experience is changed.No truth is absolute and permanent. Dewey has given a great significance to change in his educational philosophy. He says:

“With the advent of democracy and modern industrial conditions, it is impossible to foretell definitely just what civilization will be twenty years from now. Hence, it is impossible to prepare the child for any precise set of conditions.”

Pragmatism Vs Realism

Realism believes that the truths are objective and infallible. There is a reality out there, and its knowledge is absolute. This absolute does not mean to bestow eternity upon truth, but a kind of objectivity. Change is there, but despite change, people can build a consensus over a matter, and that consensus is largely objective . Objectivity of realism comes from the object of knowledge and not from the subjects.
If an object is hard, it should appear hard to all those who are evaluating it in similar conditions, for hardness is not circumstantial, neither it is subjective, hardness is a quality that pertains to the object and not to the subject. Hardness is an absolute standard.

For pragmatism, meanings are pragmatic. So if I say that something is hard, and my evaluation works, brings good results, I am right. If it does not bring the desired results or that results, the assertion is wrong. Pragmatism is all about experimentation and experience.

Forms of pragmatism according 

  •  Humanistic pragmatism

According to this ideology only those things and principles are true which satisfy the needs, requirements, aspirations and objectives of human beings and cater to the welfare of mankind.

  •  Experimentalism

According to this position meaning is derived from experience

  •  Biological pragmatism

According to this power or capacity of a human being is valuable and important which enables him to adjust with the environment or which makes him able to change his environment according to his needs and requirements.

Principles of pragmatism:

  • Changing nature of truth
  • Truth is construcred from experience
  • Problems as the motives of truth
  • Emphasis on social and democratic values
  • Emphasis on the principle of utility
  • Opposion to fixed ideals and values
  • Importance of man power
  • Importance of activity
  • Faith in present and future
  • Opposition to social customs and traditions
  • Faith in pluralism
  • Faith in flexibility

Pragmatism and education

Dewey has intimately related pragmatism to modern education. Dewey has advocated change in education and opposed traditional education. Gaining knowledge for the sake of knowledge is not the real aim of education. Pragmatic philosophy focuses mental, religious and aesthetic modes of human activity. Through practice, human beings create their own ideals and values. Aspects of education should be suitable to human good and human growth. According to pragmatists educational process should promote human welfare. Only flexible educational institutions can remain alive, active and satisfy the changing needs of the society and provide real experiences through activities.

Characteristics of pragmatic education

  • Education as life
  • Education as growth
  • Education as continues reconstruction of experience
  • Education as a social process
  • Education as a responsibility of the state

Pragmatism and aims of education
Dewey, in Experience and Education, has criticized traditional aims of education.  He emphasises that aims of human life always change with the changing times, places and circumstances. No specific aim of education can be predetermined which holds true and good in all times, places and situations. Aim of education according to pragmatists is more and more growth, creation of new values and to provide a direction and guidance to the child according to his natural interest, aptitude and capacities. In How We Think Dewey has identified Judgment making as the main aim of education.

Pragmatism and curriculum
According to  Dewey, experience is the content of education. Ideas formed by previous generations are vital for human survival, and it is the task of education to transmit this knowledge to the younger generations. This, however, should not be done as it was being done traditionally. Traditional education never relates ideas and experience, and due to this reason, children cannot understand the taught lessons. Dewey says that ideas should be taught as experience. Children should learn to derive ideas from their experiences.

Pragmatism and methods of teaching
Dewey advocates problem solving method. Through this method a child learns by his own activities and experiences. The teacher develops a problematic experience for learners. Learners perform an activity, and in the course of that activity , a problem is introduced. And then learners are asked to find solutions to that problem. In the course of solving that problem, children learn.

Pragmatism and teacher
According to Dewey, it is the responsibility of teacher to design and select proper educative experiences for the learner. Not only that a teacher has to design the learning experience, but he or she also has to conduct that experience.

Pragmatism and discipline
Dewey in Experience and Education, advocated a notion of discipline drawn from the field of sports. Education is activity based, and each activity, like a sports, has its own laws and regulations. This means that discipline of education comes from individual activities and is never imposed from outside. Dewy is against externally imposed discipline.

Pragmatism and school
School for Dewey is a social organization designed to provide social experience to the learners. School mimics the organization of society itself. Accordingly, in a school learners  gain real experiences of actual life which develops in them a sense of duty towards society . It is not only a centre of education but a centre of community. School is a true representative of a society.

Merits of pragmatism

  • Importance of child
  • Emphasis on activity
  • Faith in applied life
  • Social and democratic education
  • Progressive and optimistic attitude
  • Construction of project method

Pragmatism aims to develop a dynamic, flexible and adaptable mind which is always resourceful and able to create new values in the face of changing realities. This way of thinking has given a new direction and a new purpose to all educational activities and programmes. It prepares an individual to face successfully all the present and future problems and challenges of life. Pragmatism is an attitude and a way of living which opposes the old doctrines of idealism and naturalism and inspires the individual to look ahead and create new values and ideas to meet the challenges of an unknown future.

Dewey, John, How We Think,
Dewey, John, Experience and Education,
Khalid, Wasim and Shams, Freedom, Truth and Education
Singh, Y. K. (2007). Philosophical foundation of education. New Delhi: A P H Publishing.
Shahid, S. M. (2000). Philosophy of education. Lahore: Majeed Book Depot.

Imam Ghazali By Taimoor Shah

Khalid (2005) confirms that Imam Ghazali was born in at Ghazala near Tus in 1058 A. D. He is called Ghazali because he was born at Ghazala and also his father was known as ghazali by his profession. His early education took place in Tus and he moved to Jarjan and finally migrated to Nishapur to acquire learning from the most learned man of the time Abul-Maalai. He possessed the great ability of clear expression and of addressing the people. He used to lecture before audiences of three hundred and even more great learned man in his time to their satisfaction. He used to live in Syria Egypt, Mecca and Madina. He used to wandering here and there while contemplating and thinking of the sufferings of mankind at the same time.

Imam Ghazali wrote several books nearly 78 on many subjects like tafsir, jurisprudence, hadith, politics and education. Some of his famous writings are Cheemai-i-Saadat, Mairajus-Salikeen and Aqeedat-i-Misbah and Ihya-ul-Ulummidin. He is regarded as a reviver and Imam or leader by a millions of Muslims today.

He focuses spiritual and also emphasis materialistic development of man. According to Ghazali worldly business is important for the peace of mind and for a pleasant life. He advises the people to get the basic necessities of life and forbid them to indulge in luxurious life. He believes that man should work and labour because God has made this world for that purpose.
Curriculum and Ghazali’s philosophy
Khalid (2005) stats before Ghazalis’s philosophy came more time was devoted to religious education and he opined that equal attention needed to pay both to religious and secular education and suggested to incorporate useful subjects in the curriculum. He considered logic essential for intellectual development and thinking. He also emphasis religious and moral education of learners. He regarded religious instructions important for the goodness of character. He emphasis to include religion in the curriculum. Imam Ghazali first time identified compulsory and optional subjects for the curriculum and insited the learners to learn the compulsory subjects.

Aim of education and Imam Ghazali:
According to Khalid (2005) character and personality development of the learner is the main purpose of education in the point of view of Imam Ghazali. Education should promote desirable traits and behavior of individuals. Individual is good by nature but people lead him towards the good or bad in the society. Education should enable the learners to distinguish between true and false, good and bad, right and wrong doings. He advocated that controversial issues should be taken out from the curriculum and Quran and Sunna be made part of it. Imam Ghazali advocated the need of moral education both in theory and practice. Imam Ghazali held parents responsible for their children education at earlier education. He made education compulsory for both man and woman.

Imam Ghazali and methods of teaching:
Khalid (2005) stats his method of education appears modern than the educationists’ of contemporary society. He is in favour of conducting lessons in an interesting way. He made teaching aids part of a routine lesson so that the students will be able to participate in the lesson. The teacher should develop the lesson according to the learning level of the students. The teacher should proceed from simple to complex and from concrete to abstract. He favoured lecture, participation of students in the teaching and learning process, discussion and tutorials.
Discipline and Imam Ghazali’s philosophy:
Khalid (2005) stats Imam Ghazali forwarded very important views about discipline. He is not in favour of maintaining discipline on the basis of fear and intimidation. Discipline should be maintained on the basis of love and understanding. He is in favour of developing a good relationship between the students and the teachers. The teacher should not scold the students and treat them with kindness and sympathy. The teacher should act as a role model for the students. He is deadly against of using punishment in educational institutions, because it did not bring any positive result in the learners. It does not encourage students to be creative and flourish their minds.
Khalid (2005) says Imam Ghazali was a great Muslim educationist and presented many fruitful theories, aims, methods and curriculum of education. He suggested a utilitarian type of education to enable the learner to carry a successful vocation and profession. He emphasis personal experiences and teacher- pupils’ relationship. The same views have been presented by the modern educationist even after lapsing of one thousand years. Whatever he had presented many years before is implemented today. He was a great educator.

Note: Also see:

Khalid, T. (2005). Education. An introduction to educational philosophy and history. Islamabad: National Book Foundation


According to Ali (2009) the syllabus that he laid down is named after him as Dars-e –Nizami a land mark in the history of teaching of Islamic sciences in India. This curriculum laid greater emphasis on the study of logic, philosophy and other sciences and become the most popular curriculum across the India subcontinent. While it was revolutionary for its time. The prevalence today of a curriculum the predates the industrial revolution might be deemed anachronistic.
Pakistani Madrassha even today use man of the Dars-e-Nizami texts which have their roots in the faranigi, mahal madrassah established in lucknow by Mullah Nizam – al- din Muhammad. Old Arabic and Persian books written in the AD 1500 or even before are used to teach languages. Anzar(2003,p 16) characterizes the curriculum as follow.
The students are made to memorize the rhymed couplets from the ancient texts as well as their explanations. As the explanations in a number of texts are in Persian, Which is also memorized the student generally fails to apply his/her knowledge to the living language. Some ancient texts, such as the Mizbah-ul- nahu are explained in Urdu, but in this case the Urdu is much arabicized. The explanation is scholastic and would not be understood by, let alone convince, somebody who is not familiar with the special branch of medieval Islamic philosophy on which it is based in addition, many of the madrasahs teach Muallimul Insha which is written by an Indian Alim, which is a response to modernity .in this book history begins with the fall of Spain in the hands of Moorish prince Traik Bin Zaid. It also states that the English were always the enemies of the Muslims and advice that Muslim should adopt certain behaviors to challenge the modern advances that may encroach upon a Muslims identity.
Ali,H.S., (2009). Islam and Education: Conflict and conformity in Pakistan’s Madrassahs.
Karachi: Oxford University Press.

Concept of Education in Islam in the light of Quran and Sunnah By Kiran

The word Islam defined by the Quran itself means submission to the Supreme Being and compliance with His laws, which constitutes Nature. Islam lays special emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge.
Concept of vicegerent of man: According to Quran, Allah has made man as a vicegerent due to knowledge (IIm-ul-Asma), when angels argues about the vicegerent of man than Allah (SWT) taught Adam the names of some things and then Adam told them and hence proved his ability for vicegerent on earth. This shows the importance of acquiring knowledge from the Quranic point of view (Surah AL-Baqra Foruth Ruku). It is obligatory alike for both Muslim male and female.
Knowledge is of two types, revealed knowledge and acquired knowledge. Revealed knowledge has been given to human beings, through prophets by Allah. Acquired knowledge is that which is being acquired by the human beings though the study of natural phenomena, attitude of man and through the study of society. Quran says that for the prosperous life on earth both kinds of knowledge, revealed and acquired is necessary. It shows the basis of the educational set-up in Islam where the children are not only equipped with religious knowledge but also with acquired that is scientific knowledge so that they can live a righteous and prosperous life. That is why the knowledge in Islam is considered as the greatest gift of Allah to Man. It helps man to attain righteous and prosperous life. Education is the process through which knowledge is transmitted from a section of society to another section. It also reflects the philosophy on which it is based. Islamic philosophy derives its origin from the spirit of teachings of the Quran and Hadith (the saying of the Holy Prophet may peace be upon him). The Qayas and Fiqqah, are also the crucial components.
The word Quran literally means reading or recitation. Islamic education aims to discovering and formulating Allah’s will.
Quran indicated basic principles that lead a Muslim to observation of the universe and Nature, where he can find the answers to many question by his own efforts.
We would certainly appreciate that how nicely Quran gives hints in respect of various branches of learning and advises man to use intellect. So much so that Quran says in Surah Al-Aaraf that those who do not us their abilities us as intellect, eyes and ears will enter into the fire of hell because they are inferior than animals. It should be noted that the Quran explains the actual practical shape of life by demarking the borders of the various aspect of life.
Quran being a complete code of life says “We have sent down to you the book, as an explanation for everything.”
The Quranic text is divided into 114 chapters. Each chapter is called “Surah” which consist of a certain number of verses each called “Ayah”.
The revelations continued in Quran were not all revealed on one occasion but at long intervals and in response to special needs to the prophet (peace be upon him) lived at Mecca for thirteen years and at Medina for ten years. The revelations which the Prophet (peace be upon him) received in Mecca period are mostly concerned with general percepts that urges strongly and earnestly the man to righteousness.
Quran is not a book of science or any other particular field of knowledge but it deals, mainly with basis principals of human life. Therefore, Quranic concept of education is that it explicitly teaches its readers principles in each and every sphere of life so that its followers have complete knowledge about their pattern of life.
Quran is the fountain head of wisdom, from which all other sources of knowledge derive their authority. It consist of very words of Allah, revealed on Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) in twenty three years, first in Mecca and completed in Medina. The Holy Quran says, “This day have I perfected for you, your religion and completed My favor on your, and chosen for you Islam as a religion.
Islamic education system comprises of the following principles:
1. Belief in the oneness, immateriality, absolute power, mercy and supreme compassionateness of the Creator.
1) Charity and brotherhood among mankind.
2) Subjugation of passion.
3) The outpouring of a grateful heart to the Giver of all good.
4) Accountability of human actions in another existence.
5) Developing a sense of social consciousness i.e. enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong.
The next source of Islamic foundations of education is the Hadith, Ahadith as plural. Hadith derives its authority and validity from Holy Quran. Quran says ‘obey Allah and obey the Messenger’ (4:49). Thus, Hadith offers best explanation or interpretation to Quran.
Ahadith are not only explanatory to the Quranic text but also complementary to it. Prophet (peace be upon him) is a teacher appointed by Allah who not only teaches the Book and philosophy but purifies the soul as well. He (peace be upon him), himself was a role model who presented ideal practical life in the light of those limits enunciated by the Quran. Thus, the Quran declared the Prophet (peace be upon him) to be the interpreter of Quranic texts. Hadith is the index and vehicle of the Sunnah which gives concrete shape to the Quranic teachings. A Hadith is a statement of the Prophet (peace be upon him). A sunnah may be embodied in a Hadith, but is not itself a Hadith. His (peace be upon him) Sunnah is both an instrument for the institutionalization and practice of Allah’s will, as well as a strong force for the propagation of Islam. As we studied earlier that the man is expected to learn through experiments on the foundations given by the Quran and whose example is preserved in the life, activities and saying of Prophet (peace be upon him). The Prophet (peace be upon him) before emigration (Hijrat) to Medina deputed a teacher, there to arrange the education of the believers. After the Hijrat, the Prophet’s Mosque in Medina became the center of education. A covered platform called Suffa, was built in front of the Prophet (peace be upon him) house to give instructions in the Quran and Hadith. On the other hand the Prophet’s wives (MAPT) were in charge of the education of women.
The foundations laid by Hadith and Sunnah for Islamic education is that children should not only be taught theoretically but there should be a practical guidance for them to adapt in practical life. That is why prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was given the task to teach his companions, Quran, practically.
There are hundreds of Hadith which emphasize on necessity and supreme value of gaining knowledge. Some of them are the following:
· He dies not who takes from learning.
· The ink of the scholar is more holy than the blood of the martyr.
· He who leaves home in search of knowledge walks in the path of Allah.
· The acquisition of knowledge is a duty incumbent on every Muslim male or female.
· Seek after knowledge even though it may in China.
· To be present in a circle of learned men is better than prostrating oneself in prayer a thousand times or visiting a thousand sick persons and attend a thousand funerals.
· A word of wisdom is like the lost treasure of a believer who has got the best right to secure it wherever he might have found it.
In Islam to acquire knowledge is an act piety, he/she who speak of it praise Allah, he/she who seeks it adores Allah and he/she who imparts it performs an act of devotion.

Education and Philosophy By Kiran

Education is an important human activity. It was born with the birth of the human race and shall continue to function as long as the human races live. The importance of education may be summed up as an essential human virtue, a necessity for society, important for integration of separate entities, gives significance to life, educated men are superior, sign of freedom, a controlling grace and the basis of a good life.
Derivative Meaning of education
It is derivative sense the term Education may be understood as Educare and Educere .Educare is a Latin word and it means to nourish to bring up or to raise. This means, educating a child and nourishing or bringing up the child according to certain ends or aims.
Thinker of the past
According to Aristotle , Education is the creation of a sound mind in a sound body…….It develops a humans’ faculty especially the mind so that it may be able to enjoy the contemplation of supreme truth , goodness and beauty of which prefect happiness essentially consists.
Modern thinkers
According to John Dewey education is a process of development of all those capacities in the individual which enables to control his environment and fulfill his possibilities.
Nature of Education
a) Education is a process
b) Education is an integrating process
c) Helps to discover lasting values
d) Life long process
e) Modification of behavior
f) Education is life
Formal Education:
It is planned with a particular end in view, limited to a specific period, with a well defined and systematic curriculum. It is given by specially qualities teachers and includes activities outside the classroom. It observes strict discipline.
Informal Education
Features: Incident and spontaneous, not preplanned, not imparted by any specialized agency, no prescribed time table or curriculum and may be negative also.
Philosophy is the earliest and the most original discipline. Philosophy is a systematic and thorough attempt to relate the universe and human life to each other in a meaningful way. Derivative meaning of philosophy: the term philosophy has been derived from the two Greek words ‘philos’ which means love of and Sophia which means wisdom.
Aristotle’s view: Aristotle defines philosophy as ‘a science which investigates the nature of being, as it is in itself.
Plato’s view: according to Plato, ‘philosophy aims at knowledge of the eternal nature of things’.
In short philosophy is an attempt to answer all the questions of life. This is so because human mind is moved by ‘intellectual curiosity and by the desire for order’
Relationship between Philosophy and Education.
Philosophy and education are closely inter-related. Education is the application of philosophy or philosophy of education is applied philosophy. It is the application of philosophy to the study of the problems of education that is known as philosophy of education. Further, “a sound philosophy of education is based on an adequate philosophy of life”. Philosophy and education are reconstructive; they give to and take from each other in ebb and flow of thought and action; they are means to one another, and ends; they are process and product.
Great philosophers have also been great educators: According to many, philosophy and education are like the sides of a coin, presenting different views of the same thing, and that the one is implied on the other.
Education is the dynamic side of philosophy. If one is contemplative the other is active side. Philosophy is an attempt to answer the ultimate question of education. Philosophy of education undertakes the systematic discussion of educational problems on a philosophical level.
John Dewey: “Education is a laboratory, in which philosophical distinctions become concrete are tested.”
Philosophy prescribes the goals and essentials of good life and education is the best means to achieve these goals. It is been rightly said that without philosophy, education would be a blind effort and without education, philosophy would be a cripple.

Impact of Philosophy on Education
Since philosophy and education are intimately related, it seems necessary to discuss their relationship in different fields for example
1.) Aims
2.) Curriculum
3.) Teaching techniques
4.) Concept of discipline
5.) Teacher
Philosophy and aims of education: education being a planned and purposeful activity has manifold aims. These aims or objectives are formulated by the philosophy of life.
Aims of education are co-related to the ideals of life
Philosophy is the determining force for laying down the aims of educations. Unless we have some guiding philosophy in the determination of objectives, we get nowhere at all. Different philosophies have prescribed different aims of education.
Philosophy and curriculum: there are two sides of philosophy, one is theory and one is practice. Curriculum being the contents of education may be deemed as the practical side of philosophy. Curriculum is constructed in accordance with the aims of education that are ultimately guided by the objectives of life over which philosophy has great bearing. In the light of different philosophies, different types of curriculum have been described.
Curriculum in the light of various philosophies
Idealists, naturalists and pragmatists differ on the question of the contents of education. Idealists emphasize higher values of life and prescribe the studies of ethics, religion, logic, literature and humanities.
Naturalists prescribe those subjects and experiences which give due consideration to the present experiences, interests and activities of the child. Their main concern is physical sciences and direct experiences. Pragmatists lay more stress on the study of functional subjects such as language, social studies, general science and various subjects. Whatever the case may, philosophy is the back ground of every type of curriculum.
Philosophy and methods of teaching: the next main problem is the impact of philosophy on the science of teaching. The choice of methods of teachings depends on a philosophy of education. Teaching methods and philosophy are closely related. Method is a means by which a contact is developed between the students and the subject- matter. In the absence of an adequate philosophy of life, the method of teaching employed by the teacher may repel the student from the subject. This may lead to even disliking of the teacher by the students. Different educationists and philosophers have prescribed different techniques of teaching according to their scheme of education. The naturalists lay emphasis on motivation, direct experiences on maintaining interest of the child. The idealists believe in lecture method and discussion. Their sole concern is to create suitable environment in order to influence the development of an individual. Pragmatists recommend socialized techniques, projects and problem-solving methods and other activities as the teacher techniques. In the end it may be said that teachers who think that they can do without a philosophy of life render their methods of teaching ineffective.
Philosophy and the Concept of Discipline: The nature of concept of discipline is again governed by the philosophy of life. In other words, discipline reflects the philosophy of life. It reflects the philosophical pre-possessions or particular ideologies. Naturalists believe in the concept of discipline by natural consequences. Idealists favor inner discipline-discipline of mind or intellect. Pragmatists stress free discipline and self-discipline, inner and outer discipline. Militant or self-imposed discipline has been propagated by different schools of thought and political ideologies. Modern concept of discipline gives maximum freedom to child and provides opportunities to have self-control, co-existence and the inner discipline. This is a clear impact of democratic ideology and social philosophy.
Philosophy and the teacher: in the process of education, teacher plays the pivotal role, the heart of the matter. Education takes place through the interaction between the teacher and the thought. The teacher influences the personality of the child and instills in him a thoughtful awakening, a new life and beliefs. To be a successful teacher it is for him to know the philosophy of education and its related ingredients. His philosophy of life finds an experience the philosophy of education. Therefore, some knowledge of philosophy is fundamental not only to an understanding of education as a whole but also to have a clear grasp of the actual techniques of teaching and their effective uses.
Idealism assigns a very important role to the teacher who has to inspire and influence his pupils and mould them into spiritual beings. He is a co-worker with god in perfecting man naturalism regards teacher as the stage manager who has to provide educational environment. According to pragmatism, teacher is a friend, a guide and a philosopher. He encourages self education on the part of his pupils.
Philosophy and the Textbook: A text book is an important means for the realization of educational aims. Philosophical implications are given special attention in the preparation of a text book and in the selection of the content. We have to keep in mind some standard and judgment. These are formulated by philosophy. Text books need special care and attention. These must be written in accordance with the philosophy of time, cultural, social and political background of a society or nation.
Education is the dynamic side of philosophy. If one is contemplative the other is active side. Philosophy is an attempt to answer the ultimate question of education. Philosophy of education undertakes the systematic discussion of educational problems on a philosophical level.

Who killed Zainab?

Zainab died as a result of the notion of justice in Pakistan! In Pakistan justice means the system that protects the powerful from any kind...