Wednesday, March 19, 2014
Philosophy and Education
The meaning of education
Education means growth and growth mean many sided development (ref,skinner education of philosophy ).while
Education means that active self development of the power of the individuals the development of interest in thing worth while the self control of his thought words and action and the improvement of his attitudes and aims (Ref Fitzgerald method and curricula in elementary education .P 4 )
‘That the aim of education should be social and enable the pupils to learn social good,
Social services and citizenship, is upheld by John Dewy. The individual participates in
social activities of the community and this moulds him and fits him for proper citizenship.’ (Ref. Bhatia - The principles and Methods of Teaching-P.5)
The scientific Idea of Education:
Which is based on ridily tested and proves ideas which allow a sense of security and certainty. But this is tedious and time consuming, and cannot possibly be used to slove each and every one of the numerous problems of education. Sowe are compelled to rely on:
The philosophical Idea of Education:
Here fundamental questions as to the nature of Reality, the way of arriving at Truth and the criterion for choosing Values –all these, which cannot wait for time consuming scienific solution, (most of which are out side the scope of Science, anyway) –these are accepted on the basis of philosophical thinking.
THE MEANING OF PHILOSOPHY
It comes form two Greek words: “philos” meaning “lover” and “sophia” meaning “wisdom”. Historically, all the Arts and Sciences were included in Philosophy, which was known as the “queen”and “mother”of them all.
However, in course of time, the “dauhters”grew up and left the mother’s house to establish themselves independently. Three groupes of subjects broke off from philosophy: Natural philosophy (today refind into Physics, Chemistry, Medicines, so on),
Mental Philososphy (today called Psychology) and Moral Philososphy (known today as separate subjects like Politics, Economices, Sociology and so forth.)
Today Philososphy is clearly distinguished form the other Arts, and froms the sciences, and consists of three main parts:Metaphysics or Ontology, which is a theory of reality epistemology which is a theory of knowledge and ethics which is a theory of value this last is also called moral philosophy in the strict sense of the word , embaricing politic economic and sociology to thses three division of philosphysome would add aestetics which is a theory of beauty .
Philosphy of Education and the Teacher.
Speaking about philosphy plato says that it arise from the power of enquiring abou the nature of the universe and that no greater good ever was or will be given by the god to moral man.
Every teacher has a common sense idea of what is about and how it should be done this is based on experinced and observations problems of how much to teach how much to evalute how much to control the class how much home work to give all these problems are solved by the teacher on the basis of what was found practical and convenient .
But edicational problem are numerous and of different kinds and it is not possible for a teacher to wait for every problem to be tasted scientifically before a solution.
Philosphy is the mean used systematically the general principal gaverinng educational practice .unlike common sense philosphy stresses precise consistent serius and systematic thinking unlike science it is not narrow and restricted in scope but puts every thing in broad perespective with out philosphy a teacher would be a victam of the simplistic and naïve approach of Common Sense, or of the narrow and restricted outlook of Science.
One could say that Philososphy conferson the teacher the ability to benefit from both, Common -sense and science, without suffering from the drawbacks inherent in each.
Plato agreed with his Teacher that Knowledge is Virtue, and therefore, that Virtue can be
taught.But, in answer to his critics, who is ridiculed the idea. He explained that any knowledge is not virtue, but only the hihgest kind of Knowledge.
In the famous book: “The Republic,” which is called the first treatise on Educational Philosophy, Plato distinguished four kinds of Knowledge: firstly: Knowledge of Universals, or Forms or Ideals or Archatypes. Secondly Knowledge of Representationsof these Universals. Thirdly: Knowledge of Particulars. Fourthly: Knowledge of Representation of Particulars.
For Plato, the Republic was not meant for the good of any one class of men but for leading the good life. In the “Laws,” he says: “of all the things which a men has, next to the Gods, his soul is most divine and most truly his own,” and “all the gold which is under or upon the Earth is not ennough, to give in exchange for virtue.”
Plato believed that the human soul has three “parts”-the rational part, the spirited part and the apetite. The object of the rational part is to acquire Wisdom, and those who excelled in it would be called Philososphyers (which literallyb means “allowed to of Wisdom”). Only this class should be allowed to rule – and Plato gave them the name of guardians or Philosospher Kings. Plato’s Education aimed at moral reform of Greek society.
Music is encouraged but not the effeminate and conivial kinds. Gymnastics will also play an important part they should be an ascetic character worrior athletes who should be wake ful like wathful dogs and should see and hear with with the utmost keenness.
The aim of Plato, s education was the development of the total personaility or the whole body and soul he asked rhetorically am I not right in maintaining that a good education is that which tends to the improvement of mind and body.
In history some one said that the whole history is just a series of foot note to plato this implies that plato had touched upon all the important problems and ideas that have ever aroused the interest and axcitement of the human mind.
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