Wednesday, August 20, 2008

Value of Education in Life

Values of Education In Life


“Education should not end with the academic career. It should continue all through life _ All life is education” (Parsad, 1976, p.9). So education should be built upon the principles of inner growth and the development of inner conscious. The real job of education is to widen, heighten, and enlighten the child’s consciousness.
(Parsad, 1976)

Scope of educational Values:
According to Ibne Khaldum any knowledge of man and society is impossible without “ Value judgment” which means, without knowing the true end of man and society, as well as the degrees of their perfection.
One can only measure the actual, know and judge the degree of its imperfection, point out the factors that prevent the actualization of the end of man and the best society, with the help of values.
The main aim of the education is to help a person to live in society, so it must be guided by values, and each society has its own set of values.

What are Values?
The values are defined as our preferences in life, what we consider good in different situations. There are many kind of values as there are many situations of life, for example Economic, Health, Recreation, Social, Aesthetic, Moral and Religious.
Source of Values:
There are four sources from where the values are taken.

1. Local Customs:
In a community or neighbourhood school the values prevailing would be taken from the local customs. These values match the customs so as to prepare a child to go back in the society and be the effective member of it.

2. Law:
The guiding principles of the law, which rule the land, also govern the choice of the values of all schools. Schools strive to make the students responsible citizens and to respect the laws lay down by the government.

3. Public Welfare:

The general culture of the society also plays a great role in the value choices made for education within the society. The students learn to be responsible for the public welfare and the work for the good of the whole community.

4. Religion:
The values derived from Religion are incorporated in education. These values are encouraged and developed especially in an ideological state. The values taught in educational institutions are according to the teaching of the ruling religion.
Kinds of Values:

Health, Bodily, Recreational:
These values include the sports, physical well being, and the satisfaction of bodily needs such as hunger, thirst and rest. The values like co-operation, teamwork, tolerance, responsibility and fair play at all time.

Economic Values:
This is an instrumental to help keep the other values like pleasure and recreation. The money should be used honestly and fairly in all kinds of dealings and businesses. The money in itself has no value or the power but the way and where it is spent.

Social Values:
These values are the result of the social interaction like love, friendship and membership to a group or a family. The students learn to respect the elders and the rights of others.

Moral Values:
These values include the all the virtues to make the right decision. They teach to choose between the good and the bad and right and wrong.

Aesthetic Values:
To be able to see the beauty and the ugliness of an object is the main purpose of these values. Looking and appreciating the beauty within us, in others, around us and in nature is to have an aesthetic taste.

Intellectual Values:
If an act or object helps us find the truth it has intellectual value. It is also that the all the different intellectual capabilities should be used for the common good of a society.

Religious Values:
These are the values, which are much cherished and appreciated. These are objects in relation with the Divine and for that reason are called holy or sacred. All the religion agree on the basic values of life such as Cooperation, Freedom, Happiness, Honesty, Humility, Love, Peace, Respect, Responsibility Simplicity, Tolerance and Unity.
All the above values are not of the same rank. The values like, religious, moral, intellectual and esthetic are considered higher than the recreational and material values.
(Lobo, 1974; Living Values, 2007).

In our world today the young people around are increasingly affected by violence, social problems, and a lack of respect for each other and the world around them. Parents, educators and concerned citizens in many countries are asking for help to turn around this alarming trend. They think the solution of the problem lies in teaching values to our youth of today. We must not just educate our children and youth “to know” and “to do”, we must also educate them “to be” and “to live together”. Quality education is the all round progress of the whole person and promotes education that involves the affective domain as well as the cognitive.
What children and youth learn in schools or colleges is later reflect in the society and so education must have positive values at its heart if we are to seek to create a better world for all. In our materialistic world today the awareness of value education is crucial. But if they are guided properly they could by the exploration and implication of the values for self, others and at large for the society.
Most of the educators and activists believe that the students should be given the opportunities to explore and experience their own qualities, which are of crucial importance. Students benefit by developing skills to cognitively explore and understand values. To motivated the students to learn and utilize positive and cooperative social skills, there should be a values-based atmosphere in which the students are encouraged, listened to and valued is also essential. (Living Values, 2007)
The purpose of education is to modify the behaviour of the child and form his/her personality in a more desirable way. (Khalid, 2000)
(Prepared by Farzana Elizabeth)
Reference List:
Khalid, T. (2000). Education an introduction to educational philosophy and history.
Karachi: S.M. Printers.

Living Values (2007)
Retrived on April 20, 2008, from
Lobo, A.T. (1974). Educational ideas and their impact. Karachi: Rotti Press.

Parsad, N. (1976). Education for a new life. India: Sri Aurobindo Ashram Press,




Rousseau is one of the famous Western philosophers of the eighteenth century. During
the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries reason ruled as a god , and people like Voltaire revolted against it. Rousseau also led the revolt against reason and he made nature the sole authority over human affairs.
Rousseau saw a great divide between the society and the nature and so led the second revolt
which was called as the naturalistic movement. He had a great emotion and sympathy for the
common man. (Khalid, 1998).
Jean- Jacques Rousseau was born on 28 June 1712 in the Geneva, Switzerland in the
house of a poor watch maker. His father could not afford a proper education for him so he
received informal education from his father. His mother died shortly after birth. From the age of
twelve to twenty four he travelled to many places and developed sympathy for poor people. In
1735 he was given the job of tutoring the two sons of M. De Malby. From here his interest in
education began and he prepared his first treatise “Project for the education of M. De Sainte-
In 1756 he was provided a hermitage by a lady on her estate. Here he studied the letters
she wrote to her nine year old son and he advised her about how it was not natural for a child of
this age to be educated. He wrote “Emile” in 1762 in which he used an the imaginary description
of the education of a boy named Emile and described how the education should be imparted
starting from infancy up to manhood. He died on 17 July 1778.(Khalid, 1998).
Rousseau’s main subjects of interest were philosophy, music, education and literature.
Some of the notable ideas given by him include: general will, amour- proper, natural goodness of
humanity. Rousseau was influenced by Hobbes, Locke, Diderot, Montesquieu and Machiavelli.
He in turn influenced the works of Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Goethe, Romanticism, Paine, Comte,
Bolivar and Engels. (Wikipedia the free encyclopedia).
Aims of education
As mentioned earlier Rousseau was the leader of the naturalistic movement. According to him
“man was born free and good and could remain that way in some ideal state of nature ”.
(Noddings, 1995, p.15).His main idea was that human being is created good by God and must
make all efforts to remain that way. Rousseau had an anti social attitude because he thought that
society was responsible for corrupting the nature of man. According to Noddings (1995, p. 15):
“having to live with other people and accommodate to their needs begins a process of corruption
in man that reaches its peak in the society characteristic of Rousseau’s time.” Thus Rousseau
wanted to work towards a society in which human being would remain in his/her natural state but
still be able to mingle within the society without corrupting this natural state. As stated by
Noddings (1995, p. 15): “his was an attempt to balance the needs of conjoint living with those of
self actualization”
The theory of natural man given by him brought him towards making such a plan for
education in which a person will be able to fulfil both the needs of living in a society and remain
in a natural state. Rousseau believed that education was not merely imparting information upon
the learner. Education also takes place from the environment around him/her. Khalid (1998,
p.93) states: “Rousseau says that education comes to us from nature, from man and from things.
Here he is regarding nature as equivalent of endowment.” Rousseau believed the education from
nature to be of the utmost importance followed by education from man and things. This is
because he considers emotions to be more trustworthy then experiences. (Khalid, 1998).

So the aims of education given by Rousseau can be summarized as follows:
Development of the abilities of the learner : the abilities given to a child by God must be
developed in a way so that they are not damaged in any way and the child remains
Liberty and happiness of child: the child receiving the education must not feel over
burdened by the knowledge imparted on him/her. The child must feel free and happy
during the course of education.
Preparation for life and participation in it: during education a child must be prepared to
face all the problems and difficulties that life challenge him with. He should be able to
make his own decisions and not rely on others judgments. He must also contribute to life.
(Khalid, 1998).
Rousseau has provided very detailed information about his aims of education but it is
notable that he does not have the same aims for females. For females the aims of education differ
drastically. (Noddings, 1995).
In the words of Rousseau as cited in Noddings (1995, p.18): “The entire education of
woman must be relative to men. To please them, to be useful to them, to be loved and honoured
by them, to rear them when they are young, to care for them when they are grown up, to counsel
and console, to make their lives pleasant and charming, these are the duties of women at all
times, and they should be taught them in their child hood. To the extent that we refuse to go back
to this principle, we will stray from our goal and all percepts women are given will not result in
their happiness or our own.”
So according to Rousseau woman is only to please men and should be given an education
that takes them towards this goal.

Syllabus of Rousseau
Rousseau believed that the aims of education differ at different stages of a man’s life. So
he has provided a comprehensive syllabus for each stage of life starting from infancy to adulthood. Rousseau wrote his book “Emile” to show people how children should be brought up. In Emile Rousseau divides the development of child in five stages and gives the complete course of education for males. For females as mentioned earlier a very different syllabus is provided in his book where Sophie is the imaginary character to be educated. (jean- Jacques rousseau on nature, wholeness and education, n.d.).
Rousseau believed that children must be taught naturally but they must be taken care of by the parents and protected from unnatural prejudices, authority and force which surrounds them. (Lobo, 1974). Education- as mentioned earlier occurs from three sources: nature, man and things. According to Lobo (1974, p. 19): “natural means developing ones faculties and powers. Human(man) means making use of these natural faculties and powers. Things acquired by dealing with things(experience)”. The five stages of education as given by Lobo (1974, p.71) are:
1. Infancy : 0 – 6 years
2. Boyhood : 7 – 9 years
3. Preadolescence : 10 – 12 years
4. Adolescence : 13 – 19 years
5. Adulthood : 20 years and onwards

First stage: Infancy (0 – 6 years)
In the first stage of their life children are taught the use of their senses with experience. Education must be according to the nature of the child. No subjects must be taught. There must be no formal tutor and education must be the responsibility of the parents. At this stage child is allowed co-education with girl cousins. The parents must make sure that the child develops physically strong and healthy and that his senses are well used. The aim of education at this stage according to Khalid (1998, p. 98) is: “…to develop a well regulated sense of liberty and happiness”.
At this stage the child learns feelings such as pleasure or pain, fear of the unknown and courage in facing new situations. Memory and imagination begin at this stage the child should be allowed to touch as it gives him the idea of space and distance. Rousseau says that tears are the basis of relationships. According to Rousseau as cited in Lobo (1974, p.72): “the first tears of the infant are prayers but if one does not watch out, they will become commands.” The child is not aware of moralities and must be taught these by the adults. Precocity (premature culture) is considered bad by Rousseau. He says that the time table of nature must be followed. The maxims given by Rousseau are given in Lobo (1974, pp. 72-73) as:
Let the child employ all its faculties, especially movement
Supply physical wants
Help in real needs not imaginary needs
Learn from child’s speech and signs what his needs are.

Second stage: Boyhood (7 – 9 years)
According to Khalid(1998, p. 98) : “the aim of education at this stage is to perfect the organs and the senses that are instruments of knowledge and the development of his natural powers before knowledge is actually received.” The senses of the child must be developed with gymnastics and games and other types of exercises. The development of senses is important because these help in the proper development of reasoning and judgment. Rousseau does not opt for books at this stage of a child’s life. There should also be no verbal lessons or books for the child at this stage. According to Rousseau as cited in Khalid(1998, p.99): “reading is the curse of childhood.” Also “childhood is the sleep of reason.” (Khalid, 1998).
At this stage child must allowed to enjoy his life. The child at this point in life becomes conscious of his existence. He must be taught to live his life in accordance with the nature. This is because “man who does not live according to nature, but fashions himself through social institutions suffers misery.” (Lobo, 1974, p. 74).
Rousseau proposes the following methods for education at this stage:
· Let him be dependent on things not on persons
· Learn the hard way – through experience
· Give help only when needed
· Do not over tax the child’s capacity
· The best value is well regulated liberty
· No verbal lessons
· No punishments
· Don’t save time but lose it – the most useful rule of education at this stage
The various modes of education that must begin at this stage are:
Moral education: main thing to be taught is “never do harm to anyone”
Intellectual education: learn first by senses, then by ideas then comes judgment. One language must be learned at a time.
Motivation : child must feel the importance of learning.
Discipline : from nature not from things.
The following key concepts must also be learned:
Idea of property: what is ours
Idea of contract: respect others to be respected by others
Idea of justice: what others owe to us
Telling the truth:
Prayer: personal and not just a ritual
Charity: taught as an attitude and value
Morality: learned from the adults by watching them
(Lobo, 1974)
Third stage : preadolescence (10 – 12 years)
This stage is characterized by utility and the training of the intellect. At this stage the child is ready to receive knowledge. The aim of education at this stage given by Rousseau is “to gain useful knowledge which would satisfy his wants and desires and stand the test of practical needs.” (Khalid, 1998. P.100). At this stage the child is now ready to receive knowledge of various subjects. So the content of his education must include:
Geography: they must be taught about ones own region using ones own instruments. Here accuracy is not important as much as self confidence.
Science: this should be taught using practical methods in laboratories and workshops and not from books.
Social relations: he must be taught the importance of companionship.
Manual work: this will prepare him for any emergency that might arise.
The methods implied at this stage are:
Primary education: this must be purely negative. Don’t teach them virtue but train the heart against vice and mind against error.
Positive moral education: this can only be achieved by giving example of ones own conduct. A child learns morals by observing his adults.

Fourth stage: Adolescence (13 – 19 years)
This is the stage of morality and of moral aesthetic and social education. The aim of education at this stage according to Rousseau is “…education should shape the heart. It should make Emile loving and tender hearted. He must learn to live for others and to live together in social relationships.” (Khalid, 1998.p.101). Child must also now be taught about God. At this stage the emotions and sentiments of a man develop. The man is according to Rousseau as cited in Lobo (1974, p.79): “like a lion in his fever - does not want to be governed.” The methods and content at this stage of life should be:
· The passions: these must neither be destroyed nor prevented.
· The primordial passions: this is the love of oneself which should be in balance – not too much and not too little.
· Sex: this was at fist indeterminate but now seeks an objects.
· Friendship: is for all and must come before love for one person.
· The natural law: this is based not on reason but on love of men derived from self love.
· Study of society: the study of lives of great men show us the role of good will as well as of evil intentions. It also teaches that wars are manmade and not natural.
· Morality: this is now based on self love according to Rousseau “virtue” is self love extended to others.
· Religion: this should again be taught from nature and not from books.
· Sex education: this comes after religious education, must be given by a person whom the youth can trust, questions must be answered not aroused.
Fifth stage: Adulthood (20 and above)
At this stage the person enters the society the content and methods of education at this stage are as follows:
Aesthetic sense: this is developed by visiting various places such as Paris, visiting theatres, learning to look for happiness instead of wealth and study good taste and not morals.
Moral sense: a virtuous man is one who controls himself, follows his reason and his conscience. He is his own master and commands his own heart.
Home and marriage: man should make his home in the place of his birth.
(Lobo, 1974)
In conclusion it can be said that Rousseau was a great philosopher of his time and his stages of life are still applicable in our present day situation. Although he was biased where the education of a female is concerned but the detailed syllabus provided for the education of males is very comprehensive and if followed can lead to a man who is self controlled and can make hai own decisions in life.
Reference list:
Jean-jacques rousseau on nature, wholeness and education (n.d.). Retrieved on April 26, 2008
from http:// www.
Khalid, T. (1998). Education: An introduction to educational philosophy and history.
Islamabad: National book foundation.
Lobo, A.T. (1974). Educational ideas and their impact. Karachi: Rotti press.
Noddings, N. (1995). Philosophy of education: dimensions of philosophy series. Colorado:
Westview press.
Wikipedia (n.d.). Jean- Jacques Rousseau. Retrieved on April 26, 2008
from http:// Rousseau.htm

Pragmatism and Education

Definition of Pragmatism
Pakistani Public education is heavily reliant on Dewey's ideas. Dewey, on the other hand was one of the all time great educationist and thinker, and a proponent of pragmatism.
"Pragmatism" is derived from “Pragma” means practice. Originated in America, Pragmatism maintains that ideas and theories are results of practice, and their value is assessed through knowing their practical results .

Meaning and value are two important subject matters of philosophy. The two most important questions are:

1. How meanings are created?
2. How values are determined?

Sanders Peirce answers the first question about meaning of ideas. He holds that meaning of ideas lie in their practical consequences. If we want to know the meaning of word hard , it can be known through performing a practical. Through scratching an object, we can know if it is hard or soft. We can scratch a soft object, and we can't scratch a hard one. This precisely is the meaning of the concept 'hardness.'

William James, while giving an understanding to the value we assign to an idea or belief, says that ideas and beliefs are good if their results are good, bad if the result are bad. If we want to know the value of religion, we have to practice it. If this practice results in good, then religion is good, if not ,than it is not good.

Generally, Pragmatism emphasises cnsequences, utility and practicality as determinants of meaning and values. Pragmatism rejects positivism that claims that human concepts and intellect represent reality . According to pragmatism, human intellect learns when it solves problems .That belief is true, idea or theory is true which works and helps in problem solvinhg.

Major positions of  Pragmatism

  • Change is permanant
  • Morality lies in finding novel and socially acceptable ways to follow impulses
  • Intellect progresses with problem solving

      Change is permanant. Pragmatism maintains that change is the principle of reality. Reality changes, and this change affects the ways human beings address the problems of life. Ideas and values act like instruments to solve human problems. If an idea no longer remains useful, it should be changed. If a value becomes redundant, it should be abandoned.
      Morality. Morality and moral standards develop when an individual tries to pursue his impulses in a social system. A person feels the impulse of liking a girl can marry that girl. This is the socially approved way of addressing this impulse. Sometimes, an impulse has no socially acceptable response, and individual has to deal with such impulse creatively. If that creation is socially acceptable, it adds a new instrument to the moral tool box of the society.
      Intellectual Development. Intellect deveops when humans face a problem and try to it. Pragmatism believes in problem solving as a means of human evolution.

Pragmatism in Education
Dewey's ideas are of key importance in understanding education. For Dewey the aim of education is more education. Dewey says that education basically is a type of experience . More education means more and more experience, but of a certain quality, for all experiences are not educatiove.

In a bid to define educative experience, Dewey says that educative experience should be interactive and continuous. Education should allow humans to interact with the society in an effective manner. Continutity means that what we learn from education should have a possibility of forward growth.
Our experiences should have a quality of expansion and the ability to interact with the social reality.
For these reasons, Dewey calls education a continuous reconstruction of experience.

Pragmatism short-circuited many of the age-old tensions in philosophy:
· Between subject and object
· Between logical validity and moral quality
· between thought and judgment

Pragmatism disarmed heavy debate with an evolutionary perspective: thoughts which improve one’s situation (and societies) are “good”. Those that do not are “bad”.
Pragmatism implies that knowledge creation is an essentially human endeavor.
There are no “deeper truths” to be discovered, beyond what people believe that serves them well.
At the same time, religious truth is as valid as scientific truth. Both are social constructions with social merit.
Pragmatism in action
Pragmatism is an applied philosophy. Its validity derives from its social impact – which would be nothing except through its application.
That includes
· Psychology through the work of James,
· Education via John Dewey,
· Law through the work of O.W. Holmes
· Mathematics and Logic via Pierce
John Dewey on Pragmatism :(1859-1952)
In a philosophy he called Instrumentalism, John Dewey attempted to combine both Perice’s and James’ philosophies of Pragmatism. It was thus both about logical concepts as well as ethical analysis. Instrumentalism describes Dewey’s ideas the conditions under which reasoning and inquiry occurs. On the one hand it should be controlled by logical constraints; on the other hand it is directed at producing goods and valued satisfactions.
John Dewey was a leading proponent of the American school of thought known as "pragmatism," a view that rejected the dualistic epistemology and metaphysics of modern philosophy in favor of a naturalistic approach that viewed knowledge as arising from an active adaptation of the human organism to its environment. On this view, inquiry should not be understood as consisting of a mind passively observing the world and drawing from this ideas that if true correspond to reality, but rather as a process which initiates with a check or obstacle to successful human action, proceeds to active manipulation of the environment to test hypotheses, and issues in a re-adaptation of organism to environment that allows once again for human action to proceed. With this view as his starting point, Dewey developed a broad body of work encompassing virtually all of the main areas of philosophical concern in his day. He also wrote extensively on social issues in such popular publications as the New Republic, thereby gaining a reputation as a leading social commentator of his time.
John Dewey on Pragmatism :(1859-1952)
John Dewey's (1859–1952) life spanned nearly a full century, and his written work reflects a corresponding breadth of influences and interests. Dewey brought pragmatism to maturity by focusing on the pragmatic method of inquiry as an ever-ongoing, self-correcting, and social process. Dewey used the scientific method as a paradigm of controlled and reflective inquiry, and referred, in various works, to his version of pragmatism as "instrumentalism" and "experimentalism." Dewey combined Peirce's community-sense of inquiry with the affective elements of James's work. As a result, Dewey's version of pragmatism deemphasized knowledge and belief as the sole ends of inquiry, and instead sought to combine intelligent reflection with intelligent action.
Darwin's evolutionary thought had a profound impact on Dewey's contributions to pragmatism. Dewey's instrumentalism is a theory of the process of the transformation of an inchoate, problematic situation into a coherent unified one where knowledge is the product of inquiry and the means, or instrument, by which further inquiries may be made. Dewey's fallibilism, inherited from Peirce, holds that no belief, view, or claim to knowledge is immune to possible future revision. Whereas Peirce's fallibilism emphasized the reversibility of scientific theories, Dewey sought to advocate the ways in which ongoing communication among diverse persons and experiences may inform and refine each other. Knowledge, for Dewey, was the product of inquiry, built out of the raw materials of experience. Knowledge, or "warranted assert ability," is not a private
Extreme type of utilitarianism(judging of activities in terms of human experiences and relating them to human purpose).
Opposition of higher and spiritual values
Negation of fixed aims of education
Humanities and cultural activities find no place in the pragmatic scheme of education.

It is anti-intellectual. The main area concern for pragmatist is the market place of daily life.
No faith in internal truth( truth is seen as constantly being changed and tested rather than a stable body of know;edge)
It is theoretical rather than practical.

Plato: Stages of Education

Stages of education and teaching methods suggested by Plato

Plato was a very important and famous educational thinker and Greek philosopher. He was the pupil of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle who have influenced the thinking of people from generation to generation. Plato has touched upon all the important problems and ideas that have ever aroused the interest of the human mind. Plato gave immense importance to education. In his treatise "The republic", Plato has dealt with education in details. In The Republic, he has discussed his aim of Education, his notion of how education should proceed at different stages of life, and about the content of education and a well defined curriculum. for it. In the republic he has drawn up a blue print of what our ideal society should be and what role education has to play in the maintence of justice and the functions of different social classes.

 In “Laws’ he says repeatedly:
“Education is the first and the fairest thing that the best of men can ever have”. (Khalid, 2005)
According to Plato the aim of education is the welfare of both the safety of the society and the food of individual. He was of the opinion that education should develop the sense of ideas in people in whom the ability is there, and should purpose and direct each one through the guidance of philosophers for the performance of those works which fits them naturally to perform.

Plato's model of education can be called “functionalist”: a model designed to produce competent adults to meet the needs of the state. He had definite ideas about a good life and what we call self actualisation which according to Plato formed the backbone of the academic curriculum.
According to Plato there are different stages of life and he has suggested proper education for these periods.
Stages of education
First stage: (0-6)
Plato believed that education began from the age of seven and before this children should stay with their mothers for moral education and genders should be allowed to plays with each other.

Second stage (7-17)
This stage is till the age of seventeen. The content of education comprises Gymnastics , literature, music elementary mathematics. Gymnastics is essential for the physical and mental growth.Music is chosen as the medium of education, an avenue for the spiritual growth,  and ideas are the contents of education for this stage.
The third stage (18-20)
This stage is meant for cadetship and is related to physical and military training. The youth are bought into the stage of battle in this age.

The fourth stage (20-30)
This stage is from twenty to thirty where advance mathematics and their relation to reality are taught. Here students undergo mathematical training preparatory to dialectic. Plato has highlighted the qualities needed for an individual to enter higher education. He proclaimed that preference should be given to the surest, bravest, fairest and those who have the natural gifts to facilitate their education.

The fifth stage (30-35)
This age is from ages thirty to thirty five.Plato restricted the study of dialectic to this age because he felt that an individual should be mature enough to carry on the study in dialectic,especially about ultimate principles of reality.
The six stage (35-50)
This age is from thirty five to fifty years,  when according to Plato,an individual is ready as a philosopher or ruler, to return to practical life to take command in war and hold such offices of state as befits him.
After reaching 50 one should spend the life in contemplation of “the Good” their chief pursuit should be philosophy and should participate in politics, and rule for the good of the people as a matter of their duty.

Method of teaching
According to Plato knowledge which is acquired under compulsion detains no hold on the minds of the bearers. Plato believed that there was no compulsion in teaching and it should be more of an amusement.

Plato says all elements of instruction should be presented to the mind in childhood, nor how ever, under any notion of forcing . He says that , " it is better for a learner to be a free man and not to a slave in the acquisition of knowledge."

Plato indicated towards the play way method.

Lobo, A.T. (1974). Educational ideas and their impact.Karachi: Rotti Press.
Tanveer, K. (2005).An Introduction to Educational Philosophy and History. Islamabad: National Book Foundation.

Rousseau's Education for Boyhood

Educational theories of Rousseau for boyhood
The five stages of Emile according to Rousseau are:
Infancy (0-2years)
Early childhood (2-6years)
Later childhood (6-12years)
Boyhood (12-15years)
Adolescence (15-21years)
Emile’s fourth stage of life which is boyhood is going to be discussed. It covers the years from the age of 12 to the age of 15. This is a period of transition between childhood and adolescence. (Khalid, 1999)
Characteristics found in Emile at this stage:





Intellectual appearance
On the verge of adult life




of Emile at this stage
On the basis of these characteristics, it is concluded that during this stage he is ready to receive knowledge. Therefore, it is the time for work, instruction and enquiry. It is the time for developing intellect. So far necessity has been the guide, now utility should determine the course. The lost ground during childhood must be recovered now, and education accordingly should be speeded up. By this time the child’s innate curiosity is much more developed. (Khalid, 1999; Taneja, 2002)
Aim of education:
The aim of education at this stage is to gain useful knowledge; that could satisfy his needs, wants and desires. Emile’s training and education is restricted to what is useful.
“What is the use of that? This is the sacred formula.”
In the previous stage losing time was virtue; it is not so now. The occupations rejected at the previous stage must now be reviewed on the basis of the principle of utility. It is comprised of practical science, geography and manual work. In this stage, Rousseau puts Emile in challenging situations and provides him with concrete problems. (Khalid, 1999)
The curriculum should be built around curiosity and useful activities which are the only real motives of learning; according to Rousseau. Emile is introduced to studies that reveal nature, astronomy, science and the arts and crafts. (Taneja, 2002)
Method of teaching:
The basic method of teaching that Rousseau advocates is the problem-solving or discovery method that greatly resembles the ‘Heuristic method’. It is formulated in this way.
“Let him know nothing because you have told him, but because he has learnt it for himself. You have not to teach him truths so much as to show him how to set about discovering them for him.” (Khalid, 1999)
By this method, the child himself finds answers to the questions that interest him. Thus, all learning should still come from his own observations and experience, not from that of his tutor or from books. (Taneja, 2002)
The only book Emile would be allowed to read in this period is ‘Robinson Crusoe’, which is a study of “life according to nature”. It is easy to see why Rousseau chooses this one. It is the story of a man living in a wholly natural environment, uncorrupted by society and using native intelligence and abilities in order to solve the practical problems that arise on his island. It is the perfect model of the sort of life that Rousseau sees as appropriate at this stage. He emphasizes the learning of manual and industrial arts. In this way Rousseau wanted to teach him industrial exchange, banking and transportation. Learning of trade would also teach the boy mental discipline; as said by Rousseau.
Emile is still not ready for formal subjects of the traditional school but he can begin to learn some elementary science but from his own experience. So there are two turning points for this purpose; one from the boy’s interest in the world around him(Geography); the other from his interest in the sun(Astronomy). Therefore, the method should be that of personal discovery. This is the theory of learning by doing. While teaching him geography, Rousseau does not want the child to be shown the globe and maps, but the earth, the sky, the setting and the rising of the sun.
Qualities found in Emile at the conclusion of this stage:
At the conclusion of this stage Emile is industrious, temperate, patient, firm and full of courage. He has little knowledge but what he has is really his own; he knows “nothing by halves”.
In fact, this period should prepare the way for the next period, which is going to be concerned with moral and social conduct and religion. The three successive spirals of human development are formed by the necessity, utility and morality. In the previous period the child studied what was necessary; in this period, he studies what is useful and in the next period, the emphasis would be on morality and virtue.


Khalid, T. (1998). Education: An introduction to educational philosophy and
history. Karachi: S.M. Printers.

Taneja, V.R. (2002). Educational thought and practice. (6th ed.). New Delhi: Sterling
Publishers Private Limited.

Dewey's Philosophy of Education

John Dewey

John Dewey was an American philosopher, psychologist and practical teacher. He was born in Vermont in New England in 1859. He was the son of a shop keeper and was brought up in rural environment. Dewey revolted against the existing and traditional aims of education such as moral aim, disciplinary aim and the informative aim. He said the schools should strive to elevate the aims of civic and social experience, vocational and practical usefulness and the individual development. Dewey died in New York City on 1 June 1952.

The experience of early years brought to him two convictions:
i. The traditional methods of schooling were useless.
ii. Human contacts of everyday life provide unlimited, natural, and dynamic learning situations.
He heard the lively comments and discussions in his father’s shop and realized the strength and power of group consciousness in the various activities of small society. These two convictions directed the course of his educational work.

Dewey’s Conception of Curriculum:

Dewey, as cited in Purkait, 2001, “the beginning is made with child’s expressive activities in dealing with the fundamental social material – food, social, shelter, clothing and the direct modes of social curriculum like speech, writing, reading, drawing, modeling, moulding etc. thus the curriculum in the primary school should be organized according to the four- fold interests of the child in conversation, enquiry, construction and artistic expression (p. 162).”
The traditional curriculum included subjects were just used as information. No practicability was there in the curriculum to relate the needs of child. Dewey’s curriculum is based on the actual experiences, interests and impulses of the child. According to Dewey the curriculum should consists of “educative experiences and problems. The aim is to enrich experiences. The problems should be so organized as to inspire the pupil to add the existing knowledge and ideas. Dewey’s scheme also included an esthetic, religious and moral education.
The children should develop moral interest and insight morality in discipline comes through the free and purposive judgement of the individual.

Dewey’s Methods of Teaching:

Dewey’s methods of teaching consist of three processes

& Continuance of psychological order in the curriculum.
& Retention of problem method.
& Extension of social opportunity.

The first process is natural that is why it is essential. The second process would enable students to learn “not things but the meanings of things”. The last process would give social opportunities that will help in arousing students’ social consciousness, and it is essential for students for being a future students.
John Dewey’s methods of teaching are based on his pragmatic philosophy. According to him knowledge takes place from concrete and meaningful learning. His methods are based on the principles of ‘learning by doing’. In his method what a child does is the most important thing.

Problem solving methods of John Dewey:
In the Project or Problem Method, which Dewey advocated, the child’s interests and purposes are the most important things. For his problem or project method John Dewey laid down five steps of solving the problems but before that he warned the teacher not to allow the projects “to be too ambitious and beyond the pupil’s capacity to accomplish”.

Following are the five essential steps of John Dewey’s:
& The pupil should have a genuine situation of experiences.
There should be a continuous activity in which the student is interested for his own sake.

& A genuine problem should arise from this situation and should stimulate the thinking of the child.

& The students should process or obtain information or make observation needed to deal with the problem.

& The suggested solutions should occur to him/ her.

& The student should have an opportunity to test his ideas by application, thus making their meaning clear and discovering for himself their validity.

John Dewey thought that in this world awareness of individual responsibility must be aroused. It is school which can contribute by training the young in specific and experimental thinking and by helping them to experience the need for democratic

Islam as a Code of Life

Islam - A Complete Way of Life!
Islam is an Arabic word and denotes acceptance of God as the Supreme and the Ultimate Reality. It means submission, surrender and obedience. As a religion, Islam stands for complete submission and obedience to God- that is why it is called Islam. The other literal meaning of the word Islam is peace and this signifies that one can achieve real peace of body and of mind only through submission and obedience to God. Such a life of obedience brings peace of heart and establishes real peace in society at large. Unlike many other faiths, the name Islam is neither related with its founder (as in Buddhism or Christianity) nor tribe or race (like in Judaism) nor with land and soil (as in Hinduism). Alkhuli (2007) says “Islam is a religion, but not in the western meaning of religion. The western connotation of the term "religion" is something between the believer and God. Islam is a religion that organizes all aspects of life on both the individual and national levels.”He further says Islam organizes your relations with God, with yourself, with your children, with your relatives, with your neighbor, with your guest, and with other brethren. Islam clearly establishes your duties and rights in all those relationships. Islam establishes a clear system of worship, civil rights, laws of marriage and divorce, laws of inheritance, code of behavior, what not to drink, what to wear, and what not to wear, how to worship God, how to govern, the laws of war and peace, when to go to war, when to make peace, the law of economics, and the laws of buying and selling. Islam is a complete code of life.
Islam is not practiced in the mosque only, it is for daily life, a guide to life in all its aspects: socially, economically, and politically. Alkhuli (2006) says Islam is not a mere collection of certain rituals, dogma and ceremonies but it provides us with a complete code of life. Islam gives us the absolute analysis of political, economic and social life the first and foremost point of emphasis in Islam is Monotheism (Tauheed). Tauheed (Oneness of Almighty Allah) creates the concept that God is one. Men have been negating this on account of weak belief, the man with external and superficial excitement says the name of Allah but actually he has circumscribed all of his hopes around things. Allah has created man on the best form but man has been degrading himself by those attributes which amount to polytheism or "Shirk". Allah Says in Quran, "And verily we have given respect to the Children of Adam." Islam has given superiority to men over certain other creatures. This superiority is due to the knowledge and intellect given to him. The power of knowledge must be revealed through best deeds. But the truth of the matter is that we have strayed from the right path and in doing so, we have lowered our selves. Allah says, "And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generation after generation on cart." The verse reveals that man is the representative (Khalifa) of Allah on earth. Right to give has not been bestowed on any exalted individual or to any group. It is rather declared as a sacred responsibility devolved on all faithful. The political system of Islam gives us the principle of responsibility rather than authority. Sovereignty belongs to Allah alone. By conscious recognition of Allah as the sole Master, all individuals become subservient to His will, Government of an Islamic polity can command political obedience on the part of people so long as it performs its duties according to Shariah. The Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is reported to have said, "There is no obedience in sinful mothers, it is obligatory only in the matter of righteousness.” He further said, "No obedience is due to him, who does not obey Allah". Allah says in Quran, "He is the Master of all powers." In Islam politics and religion (Din) are not separated, Islam and government are twin. None of two can remain isolated. Islam is like a building while government is its guardian. A building without foundation demolishes and a person is robbed if he has no guardian. So, as Muslims we should implement the constitution of Islam which consists of Quran and Sunnah of the prophet [peace and blessings of Allah be upon him]. Islam lays great emphasis on education (Knowledge).Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said, "Acquisition of knowledge is obligatory to all the Muslims". The Quran says, "Allah will exalt the grades of those who have become believers among you and who have been given knowledge." So the verse of Quran indicates the dignity of knowledge i.e. the knowledge of Quran and Sunnah (Hadiths). But we should also get worldly knowledge of Science and Technology and other branches, to meet the needs of changing worldly condition. Islam believers in the inductive method, which regards reason and experience as the instruments of knowledge together with nature and History as the resources of knowledge. Induction is a great gift of Islam to humanity. Prophet Muhammad's (peace be upon him) constant prayer was, "Oh Allah add to my knowledge." Islam aims at banishing evil from human society not merely through words but through deeds also. Allah says in Quran: "You are the best nation that has ever been raised up from mankind you enjoin justice and forbid evil. You believe in Allah". For the enforcement of justice, Islam believes neither in uncontrolled economic pattern as portrayed by capitalist nor did the socialistic solution in which the whole life of individual is subject the excessive legal restraints. Islam on the other hand adopts its delimit modes to chanelize the collective efforts for the betterment of the whole society. Implementation of "Zakat" is an obligation on state for the creation of economic justice; Islam has prescribed such solid principles of economic ills. It prohibits usury, which is the root cause of all socio-economic ills.It means that system of Islam must be implemented in the whole universe. In this way, He wants to test the faiths and beliefs of His men. Islam is above consideration of caste, colour, race and nation. It teaches universal human brother hood. It is the duty of Muslim Ummah to propagate the message of Islam and a universal constitution to implement Islamic system of prayers is obligatory on the (Khalifa) ruler. Islam has given to women a respectable place in society. The Quran reveals the equality of rights of women with men in their good conducts and characteristics. The Quran says, "Muslim men and women, obedient men and women, faith full men and women, truthful men and women, pious men and women, Good fearing men and women".
Islam is complete constitution. Thus Islam keeps the Muslim away from confusion, because Islam is logical and rational. Allah is one. Allah is one Allah has no sons. Allah is not associated with trinity. Allah does not kill to save. No mediation is required between Allah and man. Islam organizes human nature, but does not go against it. There is not a class of clergy in Islam; nor is there celibacy. Islam is complete way of human life.
Alkhuli, M. L. (2007). Islam a complete way of life. Retrieved on April 28, 2008, from
Alkhuli, M. L. (2006). Islam a complete way of life. Retrieved on April 28, 2008, from

A Comparison of Idealism and Realism in Education

Comparison of Philosophy of Idealism with Philosophy of Realism:
Plato’s theory of Idealism:

Plato is an astute and important philosopher, who writes beautifully and with great power and elegance on Truth and Reality. His work is still profoundly important in today's Post modern world, and can be easily understood due to its simplicity of language and engaging style of dialogue. - He appreciated that all Truth comes from Reality and this Truth was profoundly important to the future of Humanity.
When the mind's eye rests on objects illuminated by truth and reality, it understands and comprehends them, and functions intelligently; but when it turns to the twilight world of change and decay, it can only form opinions, its vision is confused and its beliefs shifting, and it seems to lack intelligence. (Plato, 380BC
The idealists believes that material or physical universe is not complete expression of reality, the physical world is the manifestation of some great spirit behind it. While the physical and material world is destructible and changeable, the spirit behind it is indestructible and unchangeable
Idealism in general is the metaphysical doctrine,(metaphysics is an area of philosophy that is concerned with questions about reality.It deals with questions like: what is reality? What is existence? Is the universe rationally designed or ultimetly meaningless? The basic assumption of epistemological Idealism is that we only know our own ideas (representations or mental images) metaphysics also involves questions concerning ,Is human nature physicle or spritual (mind-body problem)?Does a person make free choices or do events and conditions force one into determined decisions? So "idealism" in general is, metaphysical that a world of material objects containing no thought either could not exist as it is experienced, or would not be fully "real.
Fundamental principles of Idealism:
· Idea is real
· Man is supreme creation
· God is the source of all knowledge
· Values are Absolute
1-Idea is real: It is a system of philosophy which believes that what is real is the idea of the object which is at the conscious level of our mind and not the object that we see which is a mere shadow of that idea.
2-Man is supreme creation:According to Idealism man is being spritual is a supreme creation of God.They believe that man has spirit or mind and through this spirit or mind he controls the environment.
3- God is the source of all knowledge: Although the man is supreme creation of God and he can create values, yet he cannot find knowledge of ulimate reality from anyone, elsewhere except God, not possible through the methods of observation, experimentation,reasoning,etc.,Idealists advocate the use of intution for knowing the ultimate.
4- Values are Absolute: Idealists believes in three spritual values, they are the Truth, the Beauty and the Goodness. The Truth is an intellectual value, the beauty is an aesthetic value and the good is a moral values. For Plato these three values are identical to each other.
Things that are abstract super natural or out of human mind are not the facts. Idealist’s point of view about knowledge is that the good knowledge is useful for the society. Idealists believe that ideas are the only true reality. It is not that all idealists reject matter (the material world), but rather they hold that the material world is characterized by change, instability and uncertainty. While some ideas are enduring. Thus idealism might be more correct descriptive term for this philosophy. Idealism believes that what is real is the idea of the object which is at the conscious level of our mind and not the object that we see which is a mere shadow of that idea. Material or physical world is not complete expression of reality. To him the physical world is the manifestation of some great spirit behind it. (Shahid, 2006) Idealism believes in refined wisdom. It is based on the view that reality is a world within a person's mind. It believes that truth is in the consistency of ideas and that goodness is an ideal state to strive to attain. As a result, schools exist to sharpen the mind and intellectual processes. Students are taught the wisdom of past heroes. Aristotle’s theory of Realism:
Realism believes in the world as it is. It is based on the view that reality is what we observe. It believes that truth is what we sense and observe and that goodness is found in the order of the laws of nature. Realistic believe that the fact is something that is made an image in the human mind (Shahid, 2006.)
As a result, schools exist to reveal the order of the world and universe. Students are taught factual information. Realism is the classical philosophy of education. Like other aspects of life the Realism also searches in education for the fact and reality in education. Realism discuses the three basic questions of philosophy that is: 1) what is good? 2) What is fact? 3) What is reality? In the first question realism discuses with the nature of knowledge known as “Entomology”. The second question is about the nature of value, known as “Epistemology”. At the third question the educational philosophy discusses about the nature of beauty, known as “Axiology”(Shahid, 2006).
Realistic educators say that knowledge is that what is good. Virtue. The fact is in the supernatural. The physical world is just an image of the reality. Reality is that what is never changing (permanent). So if it is like that then there should be uniform education in everywhere. Realistic philosophy says that they have a treasury of literature in their literature that is a good source of knowledge. One has to get knowledge from this treasury of literature. Aristotle is known as the father of the realistic approach.

Comparison of idealism and realism in Education
Comparatively idealism and realism both are classic but two different doctrines of education. One is symbolist (Idealis) and the other is materialistic (realism) The source of knowledge in idealism is taken from the past literature that is usually abstract type of knowledge stressing the concept of supernatural (Metaphysical) phenomenon where the idealists focus upon the picture of an object in one’s ideas. The teacher in the idealistic approach is autocratic who has more knowledge and pedagogical strength then the pupil. He/she has to select the content and learning experiences for the what ever he/she thinks is suitable and in effective for the students.
. On the other hand the idealism has fully stressed upon the objects and their ideas on the human mind. Both the philosophies have to well furnish the students’ cognitive strength that is useful to prepare him for the life and its challenges. The teacher in idealism has to face the pupil and to engage him in the discussion in his/her selected topic. The student learns by the discussion. This method is known as ‘Debate’ or Socratic method.
While Realists place enormous emphasis upon critical reason aided by observation and experimentation. Realists support the lecture method and other formal ways of teaching. The teacher lectures and the learner has a role of passive and obedient listener. The learning experiences or content in the idealism is chosen situational regarding the need of the learner where in the idealism these learning experiences are chosen from the literature that have been written by the great philosophers in the past. The learner in the realistic approach is a passive factor that has to follow the teacher what ever the teacher says. He/she is a gentle and obedient in front of the teacher. The learner has to inculcate as much as he/she can and also can express his inculcated knowledge. He is a hardworking pupil. The same in idealism but here the learner is comparatively more active then that of the realism. The pupil can take participation in the discussion and debates. (Shahid, 2006).

Reference list
Shahid, M.S., (2001) prospective of education. Lahore: Majeed Book Depot.
Students and researchers. Retrived on 20-05-08 from:
Teaching is the profession of Prophets ::

Teaching is being considered as a profession of prophets, because of many reasons. Here we will discuss prophet and teaching separately then teaching as the profession of prophet.
According to the dictionary prophet is ‘a spokes man of deity’ or ‘person who is from God and speaks always truth and works for society.’
Prediction, inspired utterance and speaks prophetically
Pertaining to thing to come.
The role of prophet;-
The role of prophet was to give the message from God, as it was given to him, to the people. Every prophet was chosen to bring reforms in the existing society of the time to prevail the truth and goodness.

The Holy Prophet of Islam :

The Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is the last Prophet of Islam. He is the one of Prophet who is sent by Allah Muhammad literally means the praised. One and the Holy Quran says: Allah sends down His blessing on the prophet and his angles pray for him. O ye who believe you too should invoke God’s blessings on him salute him with the solution of peace. (33: 57). Prophet Muhammad (s.a.a.w.) lived a life of poverty from the day he was born till the day he died. Whenever, he had anything valuable, be it food, money, gold, or sheep, he preferred to give all away, even when he and his family were in need.
In an agreed upon hadeeth, the Prophet (s.a.a.w.) said, "If I had as much gold as the weight of Uhud, it would not please me to have a single dinar out of it with me after the passage of three days, but I would hold back something for the repayment of a debt. I would distribute it among the slaves of Allah like this and like this and like this.'' And he (PBUH) pointed in front of him, and on his right side and on his left side. We then walked a little further and he (PBUH) said: "The rich would be poor on the Day of Resurrection, except he who spent like this and like this and like this,” and he pointed as he did the first time. "But such persons are few".
Muhammad was commanded by Allah (God) to recite the words that would later become Islam's holy book, the Qur'an (or Koran). As the revelations continued, Muhammad preached publicly of the duty to submit to the one true god, gaining followers and earning the enmity of the polytheistic authorities. To escape persecution, Muhammad was forced to flee in 622 to Yathrib (later called Medina). His poetic recitations and pleas for social justice continued to win converts, and Muhammad was repeatedly called into battle in his efforts to unite Arabia behind the faith known as Islam (meaning "submission").

Prophets in Judaism: The prophets of the desert in the Old Testament have become so much part of our being; they left the cities shocked by the decadence, the greed of our civilizations, and sought instructions from the voice of God. And if a person walk for hours and days in the desert, then he have a sense of great purity , he is away from the pollution and the decadence of the cities and the selfishness and the greed and the money-making. And everything is silent, and the slightest breeze comes to him like a voice that is talking to him. So, he is very open to the message of the universe to the cosmos. And so he interpret it, of course in his limited way, but still he has been inspired by that sense of the need to give direction to human beings, so that they don't do those terrible things that are happening now in our time more and more. So, that is called the message – it is the word "the message". The messenger receives a message and transmits that message to the people. And then they come back in the cities with the power of God, and that power is so great that people are very impressed by that power that is coming through the power of Moses, the power of Abraham, the power of Melchisedek. And so, somehow that message is still working all the time.We have a sense that the destinies of humanity are being shepherded by the divine guidance, but that guidance can only work if we recognize it. So, the quality here is of course to be open to guidance of the prophets. And I think that this message is embodied in those words of Pir-o-Murshid, when he says: In the beginning of the universe everything is in a state of chaos, and gradually every being is trying to find its place in the scheme of things. So that orderliness is born out of chaos. And so, what we call the law is that power of orderliness that brings order into chaos. That's the message of Israel.
Abraham is a giant amongst prophets. He is the founder of the religion of the one God, to which Israel belongs. It includes Christianity and Islam. The greatness of Abraham is such that he is admitted into the presence of God. He is given access to the divine intention. He has access to the planning, and he generates a whole race. He represents, therefore, the seed of God as man, in whom the divine being reaches a fullness, a fulfillment. There is a great significance in his mission. He is the Rasul, the archetype of Rasul, in which God finds his fulfillment. Of course, he is very wonderful; he is a king. “Abraham was the founder of Sufism”. one has to enter into the consciousness of that being, Abraham. His perfect counterpart is Melchizedek, the high priest who represents the divine order, whereas Abraham represents the divine power, majesty. It is a different attunement, and both are very, very important. Whenever a person is in a very high prayerful condition, he gets in tune with Melchizedek. When a person is conscious of his mission and what he has to uphold in his life, then he can get into the consciousness of Abraham. His consecration as a priest is where he find himself connection with Melchizedek, when he thinks of himself as being a priest in the Order of Melchizedek.

Prophets in Christianity

Christ is the good shepherd for people who believe in Him. He is very present in our hearts. He represents such a power of love, such an overcoming of hatred and resentment. Jesus Christ has compassion for the people. It is not having pity for people; it is suffering - with people – that is the meaning of compassion. Com-passion - suffering with people, putting yourself on line, as one says. Their suffering is your suffering. It is the power of love and forgiveness. And it is unconditioned love that, loves people who are difficult to love, who make themselves difficult to love. “We are tested in our love”. extraordinary humility, washing the feet of the disciples. And at the same time claiming to be the son of God, and even saying to everyone: be perfect as your father. That combination of the greatest pride together with the greatest humility. Pride in the divine inheritance, humility in one's personal identity. Opening one's heart to all beings without discrimination and without any kind of personal intent, personal guile. And that's why, as St. Paul says, Christ is present in your heart. So, we think of the historic Jesus, who healed people by the power of love, the Holy Spirit, and then the Cosmic Christ who is always present in our hearts. And it is the ultimate therapy - so that when you feel that you've been humiliated or abused by a person, just think of Christ, who said: Love your enemy. And you can open your heart to the person who has offended you, and perhaps you will be able to transform that person by your love.
Now let´s try and get into the consciousness of Christ. Perhaps you´ve seen the image of the shroud of Turin, because that is a clue. If you are able to get behind the appearance, all of a sudden you see this powerful being coming through, his eyes open, absolutely like he belongs to some other dimension or some other world altogether. He comes right through in your life. He doesn´t sit there somewhere on a mountain top; he comes right through with all his power and yet with a simple touch, the human touch, at the same time. It´s really a perfect example of God becoming man. Humility. Democracy is the outcome of insight when you see that all this is God. You get democracy instead of aristocracy, or you get this perfect combination between the two that Murshid speaks about. Christ gets in trouble with the law. He has tolerance for the sinners who are despised by other people. His love is so great that he’s become the heart of God; not just the being of God, but the heart more than anything else. For the first time you have the prophet really going into suffering, instead of just remaining very aloof or very sovereign. He shares in the suffering of people. He doesn’t despise those who are not able to overcome their personal selves. In fact, he is your being, with all your fragility and your struggle, while at the same time being the divine perfection. That’s the only way that the church fathers could say it was divine nature and human nature at the same time, the combination of those two; that’s dogma, but it was the only way of saying it. It represents a stage in the descent of God in manifestation, the consciousness of God in manifestation.
What is a Prophet?
Many people today think of a prophet as any person who sees the future. While the gift of prophecy certainly includes the ability to see the future, a prophet is far more than just a person with that ability.
A prophet is basically a spokesman for G-d, a person chosen by G-d to speak to people on G-d's behalf and convey a message or teaching. Prophets were role models of holiness, scholarship and closeness to G-d. They set the standards for the entire community.
The Hebrew word for a prophet, navi (Nun-Beit-Yod-Alef) comes from the term niv sefatayim meaning "fruit of the lips," which emphasizes the prophet's role as a speaker.
The Talmud teaches that there were hundreds of thousands of prophets: twice as many as the number of people who left Egypt, which was 600,000. But most of the prophets conveyed messages that were intended solely for their own generation and were not reported in scripture. Scripture identifies only 55 prophets of Israel.
A prophet is not necessarily a man. Scripture records the stories of seven female prophets, listed below, and the Talmud reports that Sarah's prophetic ability was superior to Abraham's.
AbrahamThe first Jew, the founder of Judaism, the physical and spiritual ancestor of the Jewish people. One of the three Patriarchs of Judaism.

A prophet is not necessarily a Jew. The Talmud reports that there were prophets among the gentiles (most notably Balaam, whose story is told in Numbers 22), although they were not as elevated as the prophets of Israel (as the story of Balaam demonstrates). And some of the prophets, such as Jonah, were sent on missions to speak to the gentiles.
According to some views, prophecy is not a gift that is arbitrarily conferred upon people; rather, it is the culmination of a person's spiritual and ethical development. When a person reaches a sufficient level of spiritual and ethical achievement, the Shechinah (Divine Spirit) comes to rest upon him or her. Likewise, the gift of prophecy leaves the person if that person lapses from his or her spiritual and ethical perfection.
Moses: The greatest of all of the prophets, who saw all that all of the other prophets combined saw, and more. The greatest of the prophets was Moses. It is said that Moses saw all that all of the other prophets combined saw, and more. Moses saw the whole of the Torah, including the Prophets and the Writings that were written hundreds of years later. All subsequent prophecy was merely an expression of what Moses had already seen. Thus, it is taught that nothing in the Prophets or the Writings can be in conflict with Moses' writings, because Moses saw it all in advance.
The Talmud states that the writings of the prophets will not be necessary in the World to Come, because in that day, all people will be mentally, spiritually and ethically perfect, and all will have the gift of prophecy.


Mission of prophet JEREMIAH was to RE-UNITED ISRAELJEREMIAH RE-UNITED ALL TRIBES OF ISRAEL - UNIFICATION HAS ALREADY OCCURRED Jeremiah, from the tribe of Benjamin, was ordained a prophet before he was born, but the approximate time he began his mission was around 626 BCE, and lasted some 40 - 42 years. Ordained a prophet to the nations of Israel, Jeremiah spoke to them about the warnings from the Elohiym, and of critical events that would occur in their lives, which would forever change the structure and path of the Hebrew people for years to come.
Jeremiah's character was displayed as a humble, timid character with many troubles, but one who would carry out his mission without fail, which was perhaps, by far the most vital mission ever executed for the benefit of the entire descendants of Jacob. Jeremiah knew about the coming disasters that would befall the kingdom of Judah, and learned of its total demise. The kingdom of Judah, for all intents and purposes, was to be destroyed, except for a small remnant of women, children, and perhaps elderly males. Not one male descendant from the line of David would survive, who was capable of taking over as 'king' of the southern kingdom of Judah. The remnant of Judah that were saved, by the Elohiym power and authority, ended up in the hands of Jeremiah - and thus his purpose in life begins, albeit, not until he had seen the crown and authority of Judah taken away and then replanted in a new city and country. A new land, a new 'Jerusalem', would be given to the Hebrew Israelites. What was once the Holy city of Jerusalem had fallen into utter desolation, never to be totally revived. A new nation would take up the torch of 'peace teachers’; a new nation would become the 'city of peace'. THE OLD JERUSALEM, AND ITS PEOPLE, HAD BEEN THROWN DOWN - but this was to be only the first time that Jerusalem was to be 'overturned'.
Jer 1:9-10 "Then the LORD put forth his hand, and touched [Jeremiah's] mouth. And the LORD said unto me, Behold, I have put my words in thy mouth. See, I have this day set thee over the nations and over the kingdoms [of Israel], to root out, and to pull down, and to destroy, and to throw down, to build, and to plant."

ConclusionAll prophets are sent by God. They are messenger of God. They talk about the future. All the prophets speak about God and for God. People should believe them because they are the voice of God.

Reference list:
Taneja, V. (1990). Educational thought and practice. New Delhi: Sterling Pulishers.
Purkait, B. (2001). Great educators and their philosophies. Kolkata: Central Book Agency.

Plato on Education


According to Mrs. Tanwir Khalid (2005) Plato was the most famous Greek philosopher. He was born in Athens, in a noble family. He was the pupil of the great thinker Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle, the great scientist and thinker. All these are world famous philosophers and their thinking has influenced people from generation to generation. “The Republic” is the famous book of Plato about education. Plato says that “education is the first and fairest thing that the best of men can ever have.”
According to Mr. Khalid (2005, p.46) the aim of education according t Plato, is the welfare of both the individual and the society. To him education is for the good of the individual and for the safety of the state. His guiding principle is, “that nothing must be admitted in education which does not conduce to the promotion of virtue.” To him virtue consisted in knowledge or in whole thoughts as opposed to opinions. He was interested in the nature of those thoughts, and he carried his investigation much farther in this direction. To Plato, the power of attaining knowledge or the longing for the supreme good was to be found not in all, but only in a few. For this vision of external truth a special or sixth sense was needed to be present in people. He called this sense a “sense for ideas.” Education should aim at developing this sense for ideas in the individuals in whom the capacity exists and should prepare and direct each individual through the guidance of philosophers for the performance of those duties which by nature he is most fitted to perform. Thus education should prepare individuals to perform their duties well. The goodness of the individuals results in the goodness of the society.

According to Lobo (1974) the philosophers must arrange the life of the state, determine the principles of education, and distribute various tasks to different citizens. So they themselves must know what is true and good.
In “The Republic” Plato suggested the following stages of education. Plato has reckoned different stages of life and has prescribed proper education for there periods.
According to him education cannot begin too early, it should begin about age of seven years. Before this age children should stay with mothers or nurses and be educated in their company. The adults should tell them good moral tales to have good impressions upon their tender minds.
STAGE -2: (Up to 17 years)
At this stage the courses should comprise music and gymnastics. Sports and games were considered important for their physical and mental development.
STAGE -3: (18-20 Years)
The third stage is meant for cadetship. At this stage of education Physical and military training is important for the youth for the battle field.
STAGE 4: (20-30 Years)
For the training at this stage the choice characters are selected. They were to undergo the mathematical training preparatory to dialectic. This training continued for Ten years and at the age of thirty another selection was made.

STAGE 5: (30-35 Year)
This stage consists of five year that is from 30 to 35 years of age. Plato deliberately withholds the study of dialectic to this late age, because one has to mature enough to carry on the study in dialectic.
STAGE 6: (35 to 50 Years)
At the sixty stage, that from 35 to 50 years of age, one is ready as philosopher or ruler, to return to practical life to take the command in ware and hold such offices of state.
After the age of fifty the lines are to be spent in contemplation of the Good. When they are called up to the regulate the affairs of state, their knowledge of dialectic enables them to mould the lines of individuals as of their own. They were supposed to make philosophy and they were called upon to participate in politics, and rule for the good of the people as matter of their study.
According to Plato the development of the personality is the aim of education. There is no single and particular method of teaching according to idealism. Shahid (2000) discussed that idealist may stress on the child and achieving the aims of education. Plato emphasizes the use of ideal centered method of teaching. That is while teaching any subject emphasis is placed upon dignity of man, and worth of human life. In the classroom, the teacher must never feel importance. The teacher must not intervene too much. He/She should not under estimate the competencies of his pupils. The teachers are only the mediators between knowledge and students. Free response of children and initiative on their part mist be encouraged the job of the teacher is to gone the children and insight into deeper experiences them they already had the teacher should infuse faith and confidence on them. Children’s potentialities should be brought into play by providing stimulating experiences.
According to Lobo (1974) Plato says, “All Elements of instruction should be presented to the mind in childhood, not however under any notion of forcing our system of education. For a free man ought not to be a slain in the acquisition of any kind. Bodily exercise, when compulsory does no harm to the body, but knowledge which is acquire under compulsion obtains no hold on mind. (Republic V11 536)
This passage indicates that Plato advocated the method of freedom propagated by Rousseau and the play way method so dear to Naturalists Besides this, Plato anticipated the Naturalists in stressing the importance of Natural Environment in Education in the following passage. He is like a plant which having proper nurture, must necessarily grow and mature into all virtue, but, if sown and planted in alien soil, becomes the most abnorous of all weeds” “(Republic, V1, 492)
But unlike the Naturalists, Plato gane due importance to discipline, efforts was more important than interest. “Our youth should be educated from the first in a sticker system”
Similarly, Plato was a forerunner of Dewey when he stressed the use of the experimental method for obtaining knowledge of particular things, and in giving priority to understanding and explanation over more information, the knowledge of things is not to be dived from names. No they must be studied and investigated in themselves.”

The system of education presented by Plato was supposed to discover the potentialities of an individual and to develop the qualities for the membership in that class for which nature has best felted him/her. Development of the personality according to the potentialities of the individual in an aim of education set up by modern educational psychology. (Mrs. Khalid 2005).
Upto 17 years: Literature and Music and Elementary Mathematics.
18- 20 years: Philosophy and Military Training
20-30 years: Advanced Mathematics and their Relation to Reality
30-35 years: Dialectic, especially about ultimate principles of morality.
35-50 years: Practical experience in some subordinate post.
50+ years: Those who .reach vision of God can divide time between standy and governing.

Lobo, A.T. (1974). Educational ideas and their impact. Karachi: Rotti Press.
Mrs. Khalid, T. (2004). An introduction to educational philosophy and history.
Islamabad: National Book Foundation.
Shahid, S.M. (2000). History and philosophy of education. Lahore: Majeed Book Depot.

What is Philosophy

What is Philosophy?
A philosophy is a comprehensive system of ideas about human nature and the nature of the reality we live in. It is a guide for living, because the issues it addresses are basic and pervasive, determining the course we take in life and how we treat other people.
The topics that philosophy addresses fall into several distinct fields. Among those of fundamental concern are:
Metaphysics (the theory of reality).
Epistemology (the theory of knowledge)
Ethics (the theory of moral values)
Politics (the theory of legal rights and government)
Aesthetics (the theory of the nature of art)
The most widespread systems of ideas that offer philosophical guidance are religions such as Buddhism, Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.
Religions differ from philosophies not in the subjects they address, but in the method they use to address them. Religions have their basis in mythic stories that pre-date the discovery of explicitly rational methods of inquiry. Many religions nowadays appeal to mystical faith and revelation modes of belief that claim validity independent of logic and the scientific method, at least for the biggest questions. But most religions are in their origins pre-rational rather than anti-rational, a story-teller's account of philosophic issues rather than a scientist's.
In Greek, "philosophy" means "love of wisdom." Philosophy is based on rational argument and appeal to facts. The history of the modern sciences begins with philosophical inquiries, and the scientific method of experimentation and proof remains an instance of the general approach that a philosopher tries to bring to a question: one that is logical and rigorous. However, while today the sciences focus on specialized inquiries in restricted domains, the questions addressed by philosophy remain the most general and most basic, the issues that underlie the sciences and stand at the base of a world-view.
Philosophy raises some of the deepest and widest questions there are. Addressing the issues in each branch of philosophy requires integrating everything one knows about reality (metaphysics) or humanity (epistemology, ethics, politics, and aesthetics). Proposing reasonable positions in philosophy. (Thomas, W.n.d).

Philosophy wants to understand the relationship of man, with nature God and all universes.Philsophy, therefore, may understood as a search for a comprehensive view of nature.

The aim of Philosophy is to understand the problem of human being. Philosophy seeks to whether man is free from the bondage of the society or he can change the history of life.
Philosophy of life
“Philosophy of life” constitutes one of the most important pillars of life studies. The task of Philosophy of life is to think deeply about the question, “What is life, death, and nature?”
The practice of philosophy is a way of life that results from falling in love with questions the mythic questions that can never be given definite answers.
*How can I find a meaning, purpose, vocation for my life?
*What can I know?
*What I ought to do?
*Is there life beyond death?
*What hinders to my freedom?
*How can I escape from the constricting social, political and economic myths that were imposed on me by my family and culture?
*How can we create a more just and peaceful world?
Human life is a journey which never ends. Searching, longing, and questing is in us from our birth. Who are we? And what will we become?
Cohen is a researcher and author, he says: “
True Science is observing the evidence, creating theory and testing that theory through various means”.
According to John Dewey the function of Philosophy is not only to know the world but to find out the solution of social problems of man.

Theory of Human nature
Then John Dewey presents his theory regarding nature of human nature:
What is a human being? How does it differ from other species? What are the limits of human potential?
Human nature being what it is, however, it tends to seek its motivation in agreeable rather than in the disagreeable, indirect pleasure rather than alternative pain. The interaction of human being, namely association. , is not different in origin from other modes of interaction. Even dogs and horses have their actions modified by association with human beings; they form differ habits because human beings are concerned with what they do? (Emand& Fraser. n.d.)
According to John Dewey philosophy should be Scientific and that it must follow the methods of Science. Dewey takes science as the knowledge and the methods of modern Science as the standard of the method of knowing. Dewey says that all knowledge should have passed through experimental test, means it should be experienced and than it should be used in the life.
Experimentalism is one of the two basic terms which John Dewey used to explain his philosophy. The other is instrumentalism. The basic thing which he mentioned is to evaluation of experimental his whole theory is based on experience of man. Dewey sees knowledge and experience together. He says that the knowledge is the result of our various types of experience. John Dewy shows that life consists in striving to continue existing, and this requires self- renewal. Physiological life is renewed by nutrition and reproduction, but social life is renewed by Education. Hence Education is not optional but necessary.
The concept of Philosophy in today’s life:
Philosophy of life was a major branch of Philosophy in ancient times in Europe and Asia. However, especially in the context of cotemporary Philosophy, it disappeared from the scene. Today people’s interest in bioethics, terminal care and environmental issues is rapidly growing. It is time to reconstruct “Philosophy of life” as a major branch of contemporary Philosophy. Some questions are given below which are asked more commonly in our daily life.

1) Philosophical inquiry into some basic concepts concerning life, death, and nature.
The ultimate aim of life is to help us live our limited lives without regret, hence, first, we have to make clear what the exact meaning of “limited life” is. We are all going to die sooner or later, but what does this mean to us exactly? Surprisingly, this is an extremely hard question to answer. This question is closely connected with another one, “what happens when I die?”
But we cannot know anything certain about this question. Hence, the question of life studies would be like this, what is the meaning of limited life?” when we do know nothing about life after death? A life study does not deny religion. Life studies follows a different path from religion, we have to make clear other important questions, such as “what is life without regret.

2) Social Philosophy based on life studies:
The ultimate aim of life studies is to live our limited lives without regret, means with out feeling of sorrow and guilty. We have to make clear what kind of social principles and social systems are needed in order to attain this goal, and make clear how they are difficult from other social theories.

3) Life and owner ship
What is the conceptual relationship between “I and “life”? People who justify suicide may insist that “one’s life” belongs to him/ herself, but is this the same saying that the person owns his/ her “life”? The problem of “life and ownership” would probably one of the most important issue is of today’s life.

4) The problem of killing and or eating other creatures:
We eat meat, fish, and vegetables. We kill animals and plants for food. Most modern philosophies insist that all life forms on the earth are equally valuable, but if this is true, then what are we doing to creatures should be severely criticized. Some philosophers distinguish sentient animals and nonsentient creatures, but isn’t this is a suitable excuse for humans? With the help of biology, ecology and anthropology, we have to tackle this difficult problem.

Philosophy deals with all the matters of life, which happens in every day of life of a person or other creatures. Where there is human being, there is philosophy because every body thinks about the life and its different aspects, so to answer of the questions of human being regarding the life is called Philosophy.

Reference List

Bharti. (2005). Educational Philosophy of John Dewey. New Delhi:
Discovery Publishing House.

Emand, N. & Fraser, S. The Educational Theory of John Dewey. (n.d)
Retrieved on 1st January, 2008, from
http /www. new foundations. com.

Thomas, W. What is philosophy (n.d.)
Retrieved on 18th April, 2008, from

Value of Education in Life


The topic which is very compelling and touching, gave me the opportunity to reflect on the importance and the value of Education in life. The words ‘Value’ and ‘Education’ seem very simple and common in daily use but a density and variety of implications can be seen on a large scale as we continue the process of learning. Its immensity richness and variedness become exciting as much as one tries to immerse oneself in it. Therefore it is quite impossible to formulate the given topic in one definition.
Education is an essential human value. Without it, man is a slave, or reasoning savage. Education humanizes us. Man becomes more human as a result education. We are what education makes us. Education plays a vital role in human life and is always guided by certain rules in harmony with certain ideals, values and standard of life. Education, by its implication, necessarily needs the direction of philosophy. Philosophy gives direction to education by providing certain guidelines (Thomas, 1968). Value literally means something precious, dear, worthwhile, something one is ready to suffer and sacrifice for (Ignacimusth, 2004). Thus philosophy and education are interrelated. “Education without philosophy is blind and philosophy without education is invalid” (Thomas, 1968). Education without philosophy is like a traveller who knows the name of the place where she wishes to go but does not know how to find the place and consequently is unable to reach the destination. According to Fichte, “the art of education will never attain complete clarity in itself without philosophy”. There is an interaction between the two and either without the other is incomplete and unserviceable. Education without values is also empty because values give direction and firmness to life and they bring to life the important dimension of meaning which adds joy, satisfaction and peace to life (Ignacimusth, 2004).
1. What is value: The word value comes from the Latin word ‘valere’ which means to be a worth, to be strong, utility and indicates importance, or degree of excellence, of something precious. Values occupy a central place in one’s life and give sense and strength to a person’s character, influences his/her thoughts, feelings and actions. Values are excellent directors and indicators for a person to do the right thing and to avoid doing what is wrong and against nature. Human Values help a person to be morally sound (Ignacimusth, 2004). Values can be classified generally in to four types:
i) Personal values refer to the desires held cherished by the individual without interaction with others.
ii) Social values relate to friends, neighbours, community, society, nation, or world.
iii) Moral and Spiritual values relate to an individual’s character and personality, and reveal a person’s self-control, self-purification and practice and knowledge of morality and spirituality.
iv) Behavioural values: refer to all good manners that are needed to make our life successful and happy (Ignacimusth, 2004).
2. What is education? It is not easy to say in this short analysis what education is, or to give a single meaning or definition of education. In every age and in every society systems of education are developed and changed according to the needs of time.
Education owes its origin to the two Latin words: i) ‘Educare’, and ‘Educere’. The word ‘educare’ means to nourish, to bring up, to raise, this means to bring a child up or nourish him/her with certain aims or ends in view.
The word ‘educere’ means to bring forth, to lead out, and to draw out, what is there already inside the child. Some educationists refer to another term ‘educo’(educate) ‘e’ ‘out of’ and ‘duco’ ‘to lead’. The term ‘educatum’ means the act of teaching and training (Bhatia, 1979). Which leads a person to the source of their own knowledge.
The views of some thinkers on education:
According to Plato “Education is the capacity to feel pleasure and pain at the right moment. It develops in the body and in the soul of the pupil all the beauty and all the perfection which he is capable of.”
Aristotle says that “Education is the creation of sound mind and a sound body…it develops man’s faculties especially his mind-so that he may be able to enjoy the contemplation of supreme truth, goodness and beauty of which perfect happiness essentially consists.”
John Dewey defines education as “the development of all those capacities in the individual which will enable him to control his environment and fulfil his possibilities.”
Froebel: “Education is the unfoldment of what is already enfolded in the germ. It is the process through which the child makes the internal external.
According to Willmott, “Education is the apprenticeship of life.” It assumes the full burden of bringing people ‘up-to-date’ (Bhatia, 1979). Plato repeats continually that “education is the first and the fairest thing that the best of men can ever have”
(Khalid, 1976).
“The chief task of education is above all to shape man or to guide the evolving dynamism through which man forms himself as a man” (Bhatia, 1979). This citation makes clear that man becomes man through education which is the only means to cultivate in man human qualities and characteristics. Man needs to be humanize, to become more human and civilize: for example if a man grows up in a jungle or in a forest he will experience only a harsh and instinctive way of reacting, as an animal. When he feels hungry he will go around and attack the first animal he will find even another human to satisfy his need. Animals do not have any idea of the preciousness of life of the presence of his other companion. That is why the writer says that without education man is a slave or reasoning savage. He is a slave of his own desires and needs. He is a slave of his own self; he is a slave of all the material things and behaves as animal do.
Bhatia in 1979 in his book Philosophical and sociological foundations of Education has explained that man is an animal from his passion and from his reason. He is not educated by nature but he has the qualities and potentials to be educated. Education forms him and models him for society. As Aristotle has said man is a social animal so he needs to live in society. Man’s life can only be glorified through education. Cultural or social aspects have great importance in human life. That signifies humans supreme position and as a consequence constitutes the noblest work of God.
3. Aims of education: The aim of education according to Socrates is to develop in the individual the power to think and to acquire knowledge by himself. To know himself is the human’s first duty. Socrates believes that knowledge is virtue which guides the conduct and by obtaining knowledge man lives a virtuous life (Khalid, 1976). Aristotle said that the aim of education is to bring happiness and goodness in the life of the person; this goodness consists in ‘goodness of intellect’ and ‘goodness of character; it means ‘well being’ and ‘well doing; consequently man’s highest excellence is his goodness of thought and behaviour (Khalid, 1976). According to Plato the aim of education is the welfare of both the individual and the society. Education must promote virtue because education is for the good of the individual and for the security of the state. The heart of the matter of education is man made. (Khalid, 1976).
4. Value of education: Education qualifies a human for group life and enables a person to understand higher values of life which are fundamental for him to become “roof and crown of all creation”, through the process of behaviour modification (Bhatia, 1979). Education makes a person human and distinguishes him from other animals. Through education human beings develop a sense of discrimination and acquire different values which make his life the pride of the ‘human-species’. This is the greatest phase of human life (Bhatia, 1979). Education has to do with the development of a human person, the modification of his behaviour and equips one in the art of living successfully and efficiently. As such it is an unending part of the venture of life. The concept of education is dynamic. It can never be static (Bhatia, 1979).
Education is life and life is education? How is this so? Lodge in his book “Philosophy and education” explains the nature of education in the broad sense as every thing we say, think, or do, no less than what is said or done to us by others beings, animate or inanimate. In this way life is education and education is life. Whatever broadens our horizon, deepens our insight, refines our actions, and stimulates thought and feeling; educate us (Bhatia, 1979).

5. Philosophy and education:
Philosophy gives direction to education by providing certain guide lines. It attempts to establish coherent meaning within the whole domain of thought. (For example school officials, teachers, parents, and public men are in the same boat, but all seem to lack coordination and sense of direction which cause education to be meaningless and a haphazard activity.) It is only with a philosophy of education that the school officials, teachers and even parents can coordinate their efforts towards achieving their aims.
Overall, education develops the innate power of the human person from infancy to maturity in such a way that not only can he adjust himself to his environment, but he can also control and improve it. Life is a self-renewing process (Dewey, 1966). Values are a set of principles or standards of behaviour. Values occupy a central place in human life and give it sense. Strength of a person’s character influences his thoughts, feelings and actions. Values are excellent directors and indicators for a person to do the right thing and to avoid doing what is wrong or against human nature. Value help a person to be morally sound (Ignacimusth, 2004). Education is a mean to transmit values; basic values are as essential to the character of the person as the foundation is to a building. Education is an essential human value. Without it, man is a slave, or reasoning savage. Education humanizes man. Man becomes man thanks to education. He is what education makes him. Education has great value in human life because the heart of education is in man- making (Khalid, 1976).


Bhatia, K.K., Narang, C. L. (1979). Philosophical and sociological foundations of
Education, Ludhiana: Publisher brothers.

Dewey, J. (1966). Democracy and Education, London: Collier–Macmillan.

Ignacimusth, S.J. (2004). Values for life, Bangalore: Better yourself books.

Khalid, T. (1976). Education an introduction to educational philosophy and history,
Karachi: national book foundation.

Thomas G. W. P. (1968). Introduction to Philosophy London: Novello and company.