Saturday, March 22, 2014

John Dewey



Introduction:

The Revolution: A Novel from Ancient past
John Dewey is one the great and famous thinker of 20th century. His book “Democracy and Education” is one of the most authentic works on education. He was born in America on 25 October 1859. He was awarded degree of PhD at the age of 25 years. Dewy served as a professor of philosophy in many universities of America.
PRAGMATISM:

Taneja (2001) claimed that The term pragmatism is derived from Greek word meaning action from which the words practical and practice have come.. Pragmatists are practical people believing in finishing the book here, solving the problem now making the social contact immediately striking the business deals at once. The emphasis of pragmatism is on action rather then on thought.

Thought is subordinated to action it is made an instrument to find the suitable means for action that is why pragmatism is also called instrumentalism. According to this the thinker is the manipulator not is holder he is engaged in his actions.

 Ideas are tools. Thought enlarges its scope and usefulness by testing itself on practical issues. Pragmatism also locates, identifies or traces values in the human experience. Pragmatism is also called experimentalism at first the man thinks in a more and more thoughtful nature as he approaches further he experience new things in his habit structure and doing the hard work which is the right way pragmatism accept everything that has practical consequences.

Pragmatism believe that man is a biological and social organism the man acts only where there is a biological and social stimulation pragmatism examines the great question of what is true? and answer that anything which helps in achieving our purposes and goals of life and works best in advancing and developing our life is true pragmatists’ also lay great stress on environment pragmatism has influenced education to the maximum extent. It makes activity the basis of all teaching and prefers self activity in the context of the cooperative activity. Individual must be respected and education be planned to cater to individual capacities.

 In order to produce creative, resource full and adaptable minds children should have conditions in the school which are conducive to the creation of these qualities of mind children should not be asked to work according to predetermined goals. The children should determine their goals according to their needs. UN like idealist the pragmatists are not interested in lectures because they require the children not to sit still and theoretical exposition they want them to do something children interact with their teachers and with their fellow students.

In pragmatism there is no place for reward and punishment as every activity is to be done in social setting where all the members are equal. The child has to become an enlighten member of the society. In conclusion it must be said that pragmatist philosophy is the practical philosophy having no fixed or absolute standards.

PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD:

According to Purkait (2006) His philosophy of education is based on change, process, relatively and reconstruction of experience.

Experience is a key word in Dewey’s philosophy of education. It may be destined as interaction of the human organization with the environment. Since living depends on the ability to solve problems therefore education is that which cultivates problem solving skills and methods.

Problem solving method is very useful in developing social qualities in the learner. Problem solving means that education like life is a practice that involves the continuous reconstruction of experience. The experience meant that human purpose and plans could only be validated by acting on them and judging them by their consequences.

Most other philosophies of education emphasize bodies of substantive knowledge us subject matter discipliner. Dewey stresses the methodology or process of problem solving. Education for Dewey is the continual. Reconstruction of experience and knowledge.
Goal of Education:
1) To look after the psychological needs of the child by catering to individual difference.
2) To consider the social conditions in which the child lives.
Dewey’s conception of education:
1) life itself is education
2) Education is growth.
3) Education is the process of the reconstruction of experience.
4) Education is a means to transmit and transform culture.

Steps in the problem solving method:
1) The students must sense a difficulty.
2) Students explore and define it.
3) Once the situation is thoroughly problem surveyed and analyzed, suggestions will arise of how to solve the problem.
4) The student must reason out the implications of these suggestions.
5) He puts he suggestions that most likely to solve the problem.

According to Khalid (1990) Problem solving construction is the concept of experience, or the idea that the totality of events and activities that students carry out under the school direction as part of the planned learning process will produce certain desirable traits or behaviors. The problem method as Dewey presented it seems to have a very logical order of development. But when he gives his views about interest he is talking of psychology also.

In Dewey thinking the logical and psychological are not opposed but mutually dependent. Dewey’s concept of activity and social process brought a change in the old practice of classroom discipline. In the school he had in mind he expected that there would be more noise and disorder than in the conventional one. He believed that when the children would be busy in finding ways and means to solve a common problem there would be much more noise as compared to the class where children sit silently listening to the teacher. He was against the traditional concept of discipline.

He said that the behavior and conduct of the student should not be regulated by artificial means. Instead the teacher should provide them with the right kind of environment so that the activities of the students may go in a co-operative manner. He added that the purpose of discipline should be to develop social attitudes, social interests and social habits. Moreover, this method introduced children to the methods of experimental problem-solving in which mistakes were an important part of learning.

Providing children with ‘first-hand experience, ‘the problematic situations largely of their own making, was the key to Dewey’s pedagogy. He believed that ‘until the emphasis changes to the conditions which make it necessary for the child to take an active share in the personal building up of his own problems and to participate in methods of solving them (even at the expense of experimentation and error) the mind is not really freed’. Dewey gave a new concept of education too. To him education is a necessity of life and a lifelong process and education is not for the future life but it is life itself.

CHILD AND CURRICULUM BY JOHN DEWEY:
Singh (2007) claimed that the child and the curriculum are simply two limits which define a single process. Just as two points define a straight line, so the present standpoint of the child and the facts and truths of studies define instruction. It is continuous reconstruction, moving from the child's present experience out into that represented by the organized bodies of truth that we call studies.
The old education was largely fixed in subject matter, authoritarian in methods, and mainly passive and receptive from the side of the young. The imagination of educators did not go beyond provision of a fixed and rigid environment of subject matter, one drawn moreover from sources altogether too remote from the experience of the pupil.

On the positive side Dewey was convinced that the ordinary contacts of day to day community life, be they social, economic, cultural or political, provided real and significant learning situations. For Dewey politics was not just a matter of national importance removed from the concern of the ordinary citizen but a matter of vital and immediate interest to the community. He believed that the school should prepare the child for active participation in the life of the community: he believed that education must break down, rather than reinforce, the gap between the experience of schooling and the needs of a truly participatory democracy. The school is primarily a social institution.

Education being a social process, the school is simply that form of community life in which all those agencies are concentrated that will be most effective in bringing the child to share in the inherited resources of the race, and to use his own powers for social ends education, therefore, is a process of living and not a preparation for future living.
Dewey's curriculum in the school was not intended to implement a structured pedagogical plan. It was intended as a curriculum in two senses: firstly it was intended to facilitate research and experimentation into new principles and methods and secondly, it was designed to allow the children to take an experimental approach to their own learning.
The curriculum of the school was to be the testing ground for Dewey's philosophical ideas and their implementation: education is the laboratory in which philosophical distinctions become concrete and are tested. If we are willing to conceive of education as the process of forming fundamental dispositions, intellectual and emotional, toward nature and fellow men, philosophy may even be defined as the general theory of education.
According to Khalid (1990) the furniture of the traditional school tells the story of traditional education; it is a story of Submission, immobility, passivity and dependency. In the old system it was the function of teachers to motivate the child - against his/her immediate interests - to learn the established subjects. He said that I know of no more demoralizing doctrine than the assertion that after subject matter has been selected, and then the teacher should make it interesting.
The teacher is not in the school to impose certain ideas or to form certain habits in the child, but ids there as a member of the community to select the influences which shall affect the child and to assist him in properly responding to these influence.
The old, subject centered system subdivides each topic into studies; each study into lessons; each lesson into specific facts and formulae, emphasis is put on the upon the logical subdivisions and consecutions of the subject matter, subject matter furnishes the end and it determines method. The child is simply the immature being who is to be matured; he is the superficial being who is to be deepened; his is narrow experience which is to be widened. It is his to receive, to accept. His part is fulfilled when he is ductile and docile. By contrast to the traditional approach Dewey put the pupil at the centre of education as a willful, purposive and active agent in the learning process.
The child is the starting point, the centre, and the end. His development, his growth, is the ideal. ... To the growth of the child all studies are subservient; they are instruments valued as they serve the needs of growth. Personality, character, is more than subject matter. Not knowledge or information, but self-realization, is the goal. To posses all the world of knowledge and lose one's own self is as awful a fate in education as in religion.
The curriculum of the school operated on three simple principles which informed Dewey's educational philosophy.
The first principle was that the business of the school is to train children in co-operative and mutually helpful living - to help them to grow into community: the only true education comes through the stimulation of the child's powers by the demands of the social situations in which he finds himself.
The second principle was that the foundation of all educative activity must be in the instinctive, impulsive activities of the child, and not in the presentation and application of structured, external material.

If we eliminate the social factor from the child we are left only with an abstraction; if we eliminate the individual factor from society, we are left only with an inert mass. Finally the laboratory school promoted the child's individual tendencies and activities. These were to be organized and directed to promote the idea of co-operative living

The child's relation to the curriculum is not the subordination of the child to the existing established knowledge, nor is it the abandonment of established existing knowledge for an anarchic child centered approach.
The young child is not conscious of subject barriers; he views knowledge as a key to life and his questions concerning the world around him range over the whole field of knowledge. The curriculum should reflect this attitude of the child and be seen more as an integral whole rather than as a logical structure containing conveniently differentiated parts. But later the child must come to learn the ways in which human knowledge has been structured into subjects or disciplines. But this is not the starting point. It is a development on the journey.

Wednesday, March 19, 2014

Meaning of Truth and Allegory of Cave in Plato's Republic


Plato was the most famous Greek philosopher. He was born in Athens, in a noble family. He was the student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle. From Socrates, Plato learned the Socratic or dialectic method, which used logic (the use of reason in thought processes) to achieve clear thinking. Plato says that senses are not enough to have the exact knowledge, only through education one can have the exact knowledge.

Plato, in his book the ‘Republic’, has mentioned the Cave allegory. Allegory means something that uses symbols to explain something which is hidden . Cave allegory is basically the search for the ultimate truth. In cave allegory he has used the Sun as the symbol of the ultimate truth; for it is the Sun that gives existence to all physical reality, and likewise it is the God the ultimate truth who illumines the spiritual world.  The true source is sun, which enables everything to exist. However, in a lower realm of understanding, fire is regarded as the source of existence instead of the sun. Similarly in the allegory vision is the symbol of understanding.

In this allegory people were away from truth and reality, they were living with understanding of shadows. For them actual source of living was fire. One person came out from the cave and passed through the whole journey to discover the truth and he discovered that the sun is the actual source of living. This person after becoming enlightened or educated with the knowledge of the ultimate truth, comes back to the cave to liberate the fellow human beings from darkness.

The purpose of the whole journey from the darkness to light was to enlighten the souls of the people, to come out from dark and to become aware of the truth and reality. Human beings learn through imaginations and shadows but Plato says that, through imaginations one cannot have the exact knowledge. If they learn by looking at the real things, senses are involved in it but  senses are not reliable.

Plato says through ‘definitions’ (Mathematics, physics, science etc), one can have the true knowledge. People are able to reason and judge things. Then there is dialectics, it is the science which overthrows all the previous hypotheis. Dialecticians bring revolutions in mind in a positive way. Contemplation and Vision of God is above dialectics. Prophets are the real dialecticians, because they do not give any reasons for their sayings or laws.

According to Plato, the aim of education is for the growth and development of the individual and welfare of the society. The purpose of education is to train the human being, to know his physical, mental and emotional needs. As human being is a social animal, to fulfill physical needs, they need food, clothing and shelter as these are the basic necessities of life.

Plato talks about cardinal virtues of temperance, courage and wisdom. One should also have the self control over excessive desires to become a perfect human being. Emotional needs are related to feelings and expressions. Moreover, if something is good or bad, one must have the courage to speak the truth. Mental needs are related to knowledge. Education develops these virtues in those who naturally possess such tendencies.

One should have enough knowledge to be able to survive as an effective member of the society. However, education prepares individuals to accept the challenges and to perform their duties well; and education is the only source which brings justice in the society.

According to western people Plato was the first one who introduced curriculum. Plato assigned a Greek education for both military and governing classes, which included two divisions of Greek education, music and gymnastics. Music is for the training of soul and gymnastics for the training of body. Plato says that education should become mandatory for all the children and to develop skills and abilities in them. For example, the future carpenter should learn to measure, the future warrior should learn riding etc.

The curriculum designed for the early training, that occupied first seventeen years of life, was compromised of music and gymnastics. Music included poetry, history, drama and oratory. For gymnastics he included dances, hunting and field exercises. Plato did not mention arts in curriculum because he did not feel the importance of manual arts.

He emphasizes on the study of numbers that is arithmetic, it sharpens the mind. Warriors should have the knowledge of arithmetic to be aware of military tactics. He considered geometry as the second branch of education. Geometry elevates the soul and creates the mind of philosophy. Plato recommended another subject for higher education, that is, astronomy.

It is necessary for military purpose and navigation. For Plato the highest study would reveal the absolute truth. He says that children till the age of six should stay at home with their parents and they should teach values to their children. They should tell them good moral tales to have good and positive impression on their minds and should enrich their souls with these moral values.

The second stage is from seven to seventeen. In this stage, individual’s physical and mental development takes place because youth is the time to study. Third stage is from seventeen to twenty years of age, new era of education will begin and the youth are brought to the ground of battle.

The fourth stage is from twenty to thirty years of age. In this age, individual undergoes through various experiences and then at the age of thirty selection was made was the study of dialect. Individual is mature enough for dialectic studies and is also ready to become a ruler.

When the person reaches to fifty years of age, he is invited to mould the lives of youth as he did for himself in his time. He is invited to resolve the state affairs and then let him return to the end of all things and he shall be honoured with sacrifices.
About the method of teaching, Plato says that when education which becomes burden for child is of no use, it does not have long lasting effect on child’s mind. Education should be a fun for child rather than teaching traditionally. In his Republic, Plato has emphasized that; individual should be given choices to select the field for himself according to his own skills and abilities. In this way education will have a long last effect in individual’s mind and could be traced for centuries.

Therefore, Whiteland criticized that Plato neglected the technical education but on the other hand he also realizes that Plato has maintained the harmony in different subjects. Plato was a great philosopher and educator. His works are the corner-stones in their respective fields.


Republic, Plato's Statement on Education



Plato, the most famous Greek philosopher, was born in Athens, in a noble family. He was the student of the great thinker and philosopher Socrates and the teacher of the Aristotle. One of the greatest contributions in education is the book of Plato, “The Republic”. As Plato was the student of Socrates so, as a gesture of respect and admiration towards his teacher, he wrote the books in which he used the name of Socrates. In the book, Republic, there are dialogues of Socrates with Glaucon, Adeimentus, Cephalus, Polarmarcus and Thrasymacus. Plato discussed in his book how education should be given to the children. He also discussed in his book how a good guardian of a state should be. But he did not get any attention for his work in Athens. So he went to Sicily where he lived for twelve years. After twelve years he came back to Athens and started his school for philosophers called “Academy”. One of Plato’s students was Aristotle. Plato died at the age of 82 in 347 B.C.
In the book 6 of the Republic, Plato discusses that the ruler should be a philosopher. But his fellows would not agree with him, for they thought that the philosophers were useless. Then he describes the true philosopher is the one who always searches truth and knowledge, and for this love of knowledge and wisdmon, a philosopher is the right person to be the guardian. He tells them that sometimes a person, who is born with a philosophical nature; with a good memory and the ability to reason, is used by his family and friends, who take advantage of his skills and send him in the politics to earn money. These are, however, false philosophers.

Good philosopher, on the other hand, is always after knowledge and not money. He describes three types of people  to further clarify the disposition of a philosopher.First, there are the people who always look for money, who pursue desires. These are the peasents, tradesman and service providers , and they form the working and business class. These people should practice the virtue of temperance, for their nature is more disposed towards appetites and desires, therefore they should better be able to control them to strike balance.

The second type of people are those who look for honour and they are called warriors. These people are responsible for maintainig the and guarding the interst and the requirements of justice. These people require courage, for the disposal of their duties.

The last type are the people who look for the knowledge and they are called philosophers. They are love wisdom and knowledge, and are not interested in wealth or honor, though honor automatically comes to them for the service of truth. Socities are formed by these three classes of people.

 Plato holds justice as the supreme good for the society. To maintain the justice, warriers should control the masses according to the law and reason. Warriors, who have the courage and passion to maintain justice in the society, cannot act with the guidance of the wisdom, and this wise guidance can only be provided by the wise people , philosophers. 

Each class of people performs its function in the society. The working and business class produces wealth and services. The warrior class defends the society and the law . The courage of the warrior class should always be governed by reason. The ruling class, comprising philosophers, is responsible for rationally guiding the society. And to ensure that each class performs its functions, its members should be meritoriously selected and educated. Thus, education is the backbone of Plato's social system.

Book 7 of the "Republic" is related to the education. In this book he starts with the parable of the cave. In this cave people are chained and they only see the wall before them. Behind them there is a bridge on which people walk. The other thing in the cave was the fire which produces shadow of the people on that wall and people only can see that shadows. The people in the cave show the people with the limited knowledge. Then one of the man is able to escape from the cave first he sees the fire his which causes pain in his eyes he gradually adjust with the light of the fire then he go outside the cave where he sees the other things and the light of the sun again his eye feels the  pain. When he go back to the cave he cannot see so his fellow men consider him blind. The man who went out of the cave to see the things is like a man who gained knowledge. The real things he sees are the real knowledge and sun represents the truth. Now if one person gains knowledge he/she should go to the other people to spread this knowledge. Furthermore in book seven Plato discusses the seven stages for education. In his opinion education should not begun before the age of seven. The child till the age of seven should stay at home and learn from his/her mother. Till the age of seven boys and girls can play together but after this they should be separated boys should play with boys and girls should play with girls.

Till the age of the seventeen they should be taught music, early education and sports because sports and games are essential for physical and mental growth of the child. Mathematics is also very important education of the child according to Plato everything is always occur in numbers. He emphasised on two fields that is geometry and astronomy. From the age of seventeen to twenty year student should brought into battle field to learn from the nature and gain real life experiences. From the age of twenty to thirty the student gets the education of mathematics. After the age of thirty the person selected for the dialectic. They get more education for five years and at last they must rule the city and their duty is to educate the other people. 

Plato's Educational Views in Republic

Topic: The Republic by Plato
 
Introduction:
Plato was the famous Greek philosopher. He was born in Athens, in a noble family. He was inspired by Socrates and was being his students. Plato was the teacher of Aristotle the great thinker. Plato served his life for the Educational field. He introduced a great concept of Education in his book “The Republic”.

Introduction of the book “The Republic”:
In the book “The Republic” Plato has suggested appropriate kind of Education for the ruling and military classes of community. He presented some logical principles of ethics and politics. His great achievement was “The Republic”. He described some important part of education in this book. He talked about curriculum as well as very beautiful reality of life. In the law Plato repeats that “Education is the first and fairest thing that the best of men can ever have”.

“The Republic” and its different parts:
 In this book Plato has presented his ideas in following sections.
. Enlightenment or unenlightenment of nature:
            He has given the idea of a man who lives in den where the man cannot see the reality of life. From childhood he opens his life in den. After sometime he can see only a fire from distance and as he goes near to the reality of that he finds another perception. As he sees water he can see only his reflection, and when he sees sun he can peruse that this is the source of light. Then he realizes unenlightenment to enlightenment. As like this rulers should not be un-educated or so much over educated that must be forced down again among the captives in the den to partake of their labors and honors.
. Former education:
                   He was talking about the former education. Because he thought that it can be the cause to bring soul into dark to bright. According to him former education has two branches one is “gymnastic” and another is “music”. It can maintain natural harmony between mind and literature. He was talking about arithmetic also where he was describing that it stimulates class which suggest contrast and relation. For example, like that a finger does not arouse thought unless involving some conception of plurality, but when the one is also the opposite of one’ the contradiction gives rise to reflection, an example of this is afforded by any object of sight.
. Second branch of Education:
                Second branch of education he described as geometry. He said that the skill of knowledge can be double in this. The geometry is always talking about squaring, subtending, opposing in view action. It elevates the soul, and creates the mind of philosophy.
. Third branch of education:
               Astronomy he found as third branch of education. The knowledge of heavens is necessary at once for husbandry, navigation, and military tactics. Astronomy as studied at present appears to draw the soul not upwards, but downwards. Only by problems can we have place astronomy on a truly scientific basis. Pythagoreans can be applied in astronomy as the part of mathematics. All scientific subjects are connected to each other and it tell us about absolute truth.
. Dialectic:
         He further described that dialectic alone rises to the principle which is above hypotheses, converting and gently leading the eye of the soul out of the upper world. It is also defined as the science which defines and explains the essence or being of each nature. Dialectics distinguishes abstract the good get ready to be battle against the opponents of good. It is represented the way darkness to light.
. Division of knowledge stages:
          He divided education as four stages, one is there is early education of a child and fancies of the poet, and in the law and costoms of the state. Then second is when there is a training of the body to be a warrior athlete. Third stage is completion of the education of training and the last stage when a man enters to dialectics (analysis of vision).
. Early childhood education:
         He described that when a child born the first education of a child is given by his parents. Then the child sends to the school where he learns many ethics, discipline which is the necessarily of his life. He studies many things like music, where he learns to get harmony in his soul. Then the child sends back to the gymnastic master to be strong and tough to face the difficulties of lives.
. Religious and moral values:
           He also presented some idea about religious and moral values. In that time everyone was running after wealth. He thought that now the concept of wealth must be changed. It can be like old Greek society into Modern Greek society. Society must be well organized and should have wisdom for others. According to him education can be considered as welfare for the society, and the universal truth is this where men should be united.
. Plato’s ways of learning:
                                                                        Contemplation
                                                                         Delectation
                                                                          Judge reality
                                                                          Senses
                                                                           Imagination
                                            
 Many illustrations of this part of the Republic may found in modern politics and in daily life. The main idea of his theory is there are some disorders of eye sights, those who see not far in the distance means they engage with their lives, those people limited on their own; they could not see the real spirituality. Another example is those who can prejudice the narrowness of world to comprehend them.
                                                                        In this Plato has dealt with Education in detail. It was all about public education. It is observed that the idea which was given by Plato is what we are following now a day in Modern Education. He has sketched an idealized education of a Greek youth in this piece of writing. The system of education presented by Plato was supposed to discover the potentialities of an individual to develop the qualities for the membership in that class where nature has fitted him.






    



Allegory of the Cave

Plato was born in 428–427 BC in Athens. He was the student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle. He was a Greek philosopher well known for his dialectics approaches of reality. Plato demonstrates at the enlightment of the human being to the ultimate reality of life and which has its own purpose. The parable demonstrates that the human mind is capable to great things, the men tied to the chains are like those individuals who have been driven by society and their parents to look and follow that piece of reality that has been inheritated by their forefathers people generally are followers and encourage to follow the natural path in life and that is something that is with them till they die.
Knowledge is the base of thinking from a broad spectrum. The person who was freed from his chains was first made to stand and then look at the raised platform and the fire that was the source of life to all living in the cave. The person doing so is first in a condition of disequilibrium, where his knowledge is tested with his beliefs and morals that were his from the day he was born. A person who is in a condition such as this has to make various decisions to either accept the ultimate reality or to go back to his chains.
A person derived outside the cave discovers the sun is dazzled with its light. But seeing the real animals and plants would make him see that what he saw in the cave was only a small part of reality that he saw and had lived with. An enlightened person is a changed person. He has the power to be a great leader who has seen the ultimate reality and is enriched with the beauty of the ultimate reality. He recalls what wisdom and knowledge the cave offered him that is something not likely to be remarked at all. The people of the cave are indeed the people who are not enlightened with the glory of the reality all the wisdom they can offer and suffice is to predict the pattern of the shadows and the puppets that have gone by the cave and that person would be regarded as the most wiser of all reality and all the reality. But the person who is enlightened with the ultimate reality would not care for all. He would enjoy the gifts and wonders which the ultimate reality has to offer.  The wisdom, the fruits and the knowledge that it has to be offered.  But in the end an enlightened person is also an educated person who is unselfish. He would come and share the reality with his mates. A person doing so will be called a deceiver from his friends and mates and is not accepted with his knowledge, he is generally laughed upon by his friends and mates therefore he is made a fun. But still he is a person from the cave and is seen the ultimate light and can in no way compete with them in a contest of having measuring the objects in term of their image and size. The person who is has seen the ultimate reality would be the forger of the people. But another person realised from the chain is not valid to be doing such an act.

The person enlightened has to deliver the truth to the people of the society and it you that mean can only be achieved with the education of the society and the must do all they can to support that. Even if the cost of that is death   

Rousseau: Summary of Emile Book 1

Rousseau Book One (summary)                                                           
“Emile” is the famous book written by Rousseau in 1762. It is an imaginary description of the education of a baby named Emile. This book contains five chapters . In the first book Rousseau discussed the physical development and careful nurturing of a baby. In the first book , Rousseau has discussed the development of an infant, where as he describes an infant as the one who cannot speak.Rousseau is of the view that a person is born well by nature and he or she is fashioned by education. His detailed views regarding nurturing of a baby is discussed in below:
Baby is dependent                                                       
Rousseau is of the view that we are born weak, stupid, and lacking everything so we need the help of some one else around us. All that we lack at birth is given to us by education. An infant can not eat, drink, walk, speaks, and so on by himself so he needs some external help at this stage.
Categories of education according to Rousseau
There are three main categories of education given by Rousseau these include: education of nature, education of men, and education of things. Education of nature related with our inner growth of our organs and facilities on the other hand the use we learn to make of this growth is the education of men and education of things is what we gain by our experience of our surroundings. Thus we are taught by three masters: nature, men and things.
Nature
He says that baby is born good but it is the environment and men who make a baby to learn some evils; like speaking lie, backbiting and so on.    
Tutor                                                                                                          
According to Rousseau the best nurse is the mother and the best teacher for the baby is the father. Rousseau is strictly against sending to baby to some one else where baby will be taught, he is saying that nurses do not have that much love for the baby which the real parents have. so they can not train a baby in a right way.

Making a man or making a citizen    
According to him the sense of living for others should be developed in the child rather than living for himself. He is saying that at one time these both areas can not be developed by the teacher in the child. He suggested that choose between making a man and making citizens because both at one time is not possible. If some one tries to teach both than he will be good neither for himself nor for other.
Natural man
According to Rousseau natural man is everything for himself but, good institutions are those that who knows how to denature man to take away his absolute existence in order to give him a relative one, and to transport the “me” into a common unity.
Best educated person
 According to Rousseau the best educated is one who endures the good and evil of life. Hence it flows that true education is consists of less in percept than in practice.
To live is not to breathe but to act
Baby should be trained in different areas for instance, he should be taught how to swim, how to bear the clod weather and so on. so that in the absence of parents he can survive easily and will have capabilities to face the upcoming challenges. The man who has lived the most is not he who has counted most years but he who has most felt life.
The first language of a baby
The first language of a new born baby is “crying” so this is the duty of a mother to understand hi/her language. if a baby is crying then try to find out the reason which made him crying than try to reduce his pain rather than to beat him or to shout at him.
Freedom of baby
The child should be given freedom to move, to walk, to do, or to act and so on, the newly born child needs to stir and stretch his limbs to free them from the stiffness resulting from being curled up so long. His limbs are stretch indeed, but he is not allowed to move them. Even the head is confined by a cap. One would think they were afraid the child should look as if he were alive. It means that Rousseau is totally against of wrapping a child in a piece of cloth for a long time, the child should be free to exercise and he should his organs as he can
Use of Mask for baby                                                                                                      
All children afraid of different things which they rarely encountered in the life for example dog, lion and so on. So child should be trained for these things by removing fear from them. One technique parents can use is the use of MASK; parents can begin by showing a mask with a pleasant face. Then some one put this mask before his face. Degrees one can accustom him to less pleasing mask and at last hideous one. If one can arrange these stages skillfully, far from being afraid of the last mask, he will laugh at it as he did at the first.
If in a childhood he sees toads, snakes and fish etc he will not be afraid of any animal when he is grown up. Those who are continually seeing terrible things think nothing of them.    
Do not confine a baby in tight wrappings
No cap, no bandages nor swaddling cloths. Loose and flowing flannels wrappers which leaves its limbs free and not too heavy to check his movements not too warm to prevent his feeling the air. Instead put him in a big cradle well padded where he will move easily and safely.              
Building of habit in a baby /bathe                                                     
Rousseau emphasized on building habits in children which will help him in latter life. For instance he is saying that train a child to bathe occasionally in hot water of every bearable degree and often in every bearable degree of cold water. Now water being a denser fluid touches us at more points than air, so that having learnt all the variations of temperature in water, we shall scarcely feel this of the air. This habit of bathe once established should never be broken off it must be kept up all through life.
The only habit the child should be allowed to contract is that of no habit; let him be carried on either arm; let him be accustomed to offer either hand, to use one or other indifferently; let him not want to eat, sleep or anything in fixed time nor unable to be left alone by day or night.     


When a Baby education starts?
Rousseau is of the view that a child education begin at birth, before he can speak or understand he is learning. Experiences precede instruction; when he recognizes his nurse he has learnt much. The knowledge of the most ignorant man would surprise us if we had followed his course from the birth to the present time.   
                                                       
Should a Baby provide immediate help when he or she cries?  
Prolonged cry does not harm the child. Be careful when a child cries, try to find out the reason if he is in real pain and his/her pain can be removed by some effort then immediate action should be taken. If he/she is crying without any reason and the care taker tries to calm him/her then he will become quite for today but cry louder tomorrow if you become careless these tears become command.
What to do for a useless or unnecessary cry of a baby?    
As their thinking stronger they use adults to carry out their wishes and supplement their own weaknesses. To cure prolonged cry do not pay attention, no one likes to take useless pains. If it is not possible to remove the pain then do not try to sooth otherwise he will become your master.
What should be done when a baby ask a thing to bring it him?
In the first case bring it to him slowly; in the second do not even seem to hear his cries. The more he cries the less you should heed him. He must learn in good time not give commands to men, for he is not their master nor to things, for they cannot hear him. Thus when a baby wants something you mean to give him, it is better to carry him to it rather then to bring the things to him. Form this he will draw a conclusion suited to his age and there is no other way of suggesting it to him.  
The weaning period of a baby
Weaning time begins when they start cutting their teeth. Commonly he is given a hard thing for soothing; actually it is not a helpful but making the process of teething painful. for example puppies tries to chew wood, leather, rags and soft materials on which tooth leaves mark and not hard things like bones, iron or pebbles. Porridge is not suitable for them, first thing for chewing: dried fruit or crust, instead they can be given a small branch of a tree with its leaves and fruit, a little poppy flower in which one can hear the seeds shake, liquorices, he/she which may suck and chew. Rattles and other such teeth are of no use. They are just tools of making them materialized.     
Speaking period of a child and his/her training
Always utter proper and complete words. Speech differences; a peasant child and a city dwellers child. Little faults of speech can be removed but the fear and shyness which is caused by criticism can not e cured. Do not to help when child begins to stammer, be patient and let him try to make you understand. Do not pressurize the child to start speaking; otherwise they get confused in their speech. If they start speaking on pressure they will have problems their pronunciations.
So we can see that an infant progresses in different ways. He/she learns to talk, eat, and walk about the same time.
Should a baby given to nurse for caring
According to Rousseau the baby should not be given to any nurse because they do not have that love which hi/her real parents have for him/her. He is saying that the best nurse for a baby is his/her mother and the best teacher is father. The one who he /she is not educated how he/she can educate a baby; this is really cheating with a baby.
Food for mother 
Instead of changing the nurse usual diet it would be better to give food in larger quantities and better of its kind. It is not the nature of the food that makes a vegetables diet indigestible, but the flavoring that makes it unwholesome.   
Some principles of nature that need to be followed
There are some principles of nature that should be followed otherwise deviations occur in child’s personality. First rule: Nature has given superfluous strength to a child. Nature demands to utilize those energies otherwise they can be abused. Second rule: they should be helped with their weakness, for example physical care, help from falling, touching sensitive things, hot things and so on. Third rule: limit the amount of unnecessary help, help only when there is a dire reason. Fourth rule: one must study their signs and language carefully and should understand what a baby want to say or asks.

                                                                                                                 

Khushhal Khan
M-Ed final year NDIE, 2011-2012
Dated: 17/12/2011


How We Think: Dewey

“How we think”
By John Dewey.

John Dewey in his book “How w think” argues that thinking is a natural process like breathing and heartbeat. Therefore it is impossible to teach some one to think. However it is possible to help someone thinking. This is the duty of the teacher to provide such kind of encouraging environment which helps the child to stimulate creative thinking.
In the fifteenth chapter “the recitation and the training of thought” he discusses the importance of recitation in the process of teaching and learning. During the process the teacher has the closest contact with the students which influence their language habits. It also helps the teacher to provide guidance during the activity which indirectly helps the teacher for observation about the process of teaching and learning. Recitation is an instrument for those teachers who are skillful.
            Before discussion on recitation versus reflection it is important to understand the meaning of recitation. It means “to recite is to cite again, to repeat and to tell over and over. If the teacher does not understand the real meaning of recitation then it is only the rehearing of secondary information which leads towards memorization. The purpose of memorization is to produce correct answers at the proper time.
According to Dewey the aim of education in and out of the school at all ages develop a type of critical thinking that is applicable to solve the problems. Then he discusses the Herbartians’ teaching method which is based on five steps;
  1. (a) Preparation
(b) Statement of aim
  1. Presentation
  2. Comparison/ association
  3. Generalization
  4. Application
The teachers mostly use this method in teaching and learning process but these steps make a child a passive learner. Because the process lead them to neglect the impotence of natural tendencies and to over stress the dominant role of teachers in the creation of interests and training of thought. This process only deals with thought simply as an incident in the process of information. The teachers do not develop the critical thinking with the help of formal instruction method because their problem is lack of preparation for the lesson. If the teachers reflect critically before interacting with the students then they can develop critical thinking. The following questions will help the teachers in achieving the objectives.
    • What preparations have my pupils for attacking this subject?
    • What familiar experiences of theirs are available?
    • How shell I present the matter so as to fit economically and effectively into their present equipment?
    • What pictures shall I show?
    • What comparisons shall I lead them to draw, what similarities to recognize?
    • What is the general principle toward which the whole discussion should point as its conclusion/
    • By what applications shall I try to fix, to clear up and to make real the grasp of this general principal?


 For the purpose the teachers should aware of the interests and the natural tendencies of their students rather than the inculcation of knowledge. The teacher should provide them opportunities to learn in natural way.
John Dewey believed in giving the child great freedom but the teacher has regulate it.  The teacher must ensure that the opportunities which are provided in the class should fulfill the individual needs as well as group requirements. The teacher is supposed to supervise children’s activities for helping and guiding them according to their inborn needs. The teacher’s is not so much imparting knowledge as to create in them the interest for knowledge. He/she should not destroy the initiative of the child but he/she is there to guard it.


Plato's Ideas on Education

PLATO
Introduction:
Plato was the most famous Greek philosopher. He was born in Athens, in a noble family. He was the pupil of great thinker Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle, the great scientist and thinker, Plato was considered the world renowned philosopher. His thinking was influenced by people from generation to generation.
History of life:
Plato worked a lot and attached greatest importance to the subject of education. In the Republic he compares it with war, the conduct of campaign and the administration of states and counts it as amongst the greatest and most beautiful subject. In this Plato has dealt with education in detail. Although, the Greek old education resulted in a brilliant period of personal achievement and national progress. Plato thinks that this new bond was to be found in ideas, in universal truth and in intelligence through which men were united by nature. Plato considered education is the welfare of both individual and society.
Stages:
Plato has described different stages of life and has prescribed proper education for these periods. For him education cannot begin in the age of seven. Before this age children should stay with their mothers or nurses and can be educated with their company. The adult should tell them good moral tales to have good impression on their mind up to the age of six children of both the sexes may be play together but after this age they should be separated.
The second stage prolong until the age of seventeen. According to Plato it should comprise music & gymnasium, sport and games were considered important for the physical and mental development.
The third stage is meant for cadetship. For three years after the completion of the early education, it is from seventeen to twenty years of age the young ones are brought to the field of battles and like young hounds have a taste of blood given them.
The fourth stage is from twenty to thirty years of age, for the training at this stage the choice characters are selected. They have to undergo the mathematical training. This training continued for ten years and at the age of thirty another enumerated that qualities required in an individual for higher education. He said that preference should be given to the bravest and if possible to the fairest and having noble and generous temper, they should have the natural gifts which will facilitate their education. He further said that a good memory and quick to learn, noble, gracious the friend of truth, justice, courage, temperature, magnificence, apprehension and memory.
The fifth stage consists of five years, i.e. from thirty to thirty five years of age. Plato deliberately with holds the study of diabetic at this age, because one has to be mature enough to carry on the study in diabetic. This study is to be prosecuted for five years, every other pursuit being resigned for it.
At the six stages, i.e. from thirty five years of age, one is ready as a philosopher or ruler, to return to practical life to take the command in war and hold such offices of state as young man.
After this age of fifty the lives are to be spent in contemplation of ‘the good’. When they are called upon to regulate the affairs of the state, their knowledge of dialectic enables them to mould the lives of individual as their own. They were supposed to make philosopher as their chief pursuit. They were called upon to participate in politics and rule for the good of the people as the matter of their duty.
Conclusion:
Thus Plato was considered one of the most renowned philosophers, educator and thinker. He makes aware of education to people from generation to generation. He gives universally valid examples. Thus the system of education presented by Plato makes the individual mentally & physically developed & his work are the corner stone’s in their respective field.


Republic and Education: Plato's Ideas


THE REPUBLIC
Plato was the most famous Greek philosopher. He was born in Athens, in a noble family. He was the student of the great thinker Socrates and the teacher of the Aristotle. Plato wrote a very famous book “Republic”. Rousseau as cited in (Khalid, 1996.p.43) States that, if you wish to know what is meant by public education read Plato’s Republic. He discussed in his book how education should be given to the children. But he did not pay any attention for his work in Athens. So he went to Sicily where he lived for twelve years. After twelve years he came back to the Athens and started his school as an “Academy”. It was a time when new philosophical thought was developed and new educational practice was evolved.
According to Plato the aim of education is to develop the awareness of both the individual and society. Education should mean at developing this wisdom for ideas in the individuals in whom the ability exists and should plan and direct each individual through the guidance of philosopher for the performance of those duties which by nature he is most fixed to perform. In the ‘law’ Plato repeats that “education is the first and fairest thing that the best of men can ever have”
In his book VI Plato discussed about the justice and as well he described three types of people.
Ø  First there are the people who always look for money they are the ordinary people.
Ø  Second type of people is those who look for honour they are warriors.
Ø  Third type of the people who look for the knowledge they are philosophers and maintaining the justice. Worrier should control the ordinary people and to control the law and to control both the types of people, philosophers must look after the laws.
In book VII Socrates continues efforts to complete representation of the good. He describes human nature in both of its states:
Ø  The educated
Ø  The uneducated

Book VII of the republic in related to the education. He asks his audience to imagine a cave with prisoners in it. Socrates describes a dark scene. A group of people have lived in a deep cave since birth, never seeing the light of day. These people are bound so that they cannot look to either side or behind them, but only straight ahead. Behind them is a fire, and behind the fire is a partial wall. On top of the wall are various statues, which are manipulated by another group of people, lying out of sight behind the partial wall. Because of the fire, the statues cast shadows across the wall that the prisoners are facing. The prisoners watch the stories that these shadows play out, and because these shadows are all they ever get to see, they believe them to be the most real things in the world. The people in the cave show the people with the limited knowledge. Then one of the man was able to escaped from the cave first he saw the fire his eyes felt pain he gradually adjusted then he went outside the cave  he saw the other things and the light of the sun again his eye were in pain. When he went back to the cave he could not see so his fellow men considered him blind. The man who went out of the cave to see the things is like a man who gain knowledge and sun represents the truth. So when they talk to one another about “men,” “women,” “trees,” or “horses,” they are referring to these shadows. These prisoners represent the lowest stage on the line—imagination.
If one of the prisoners would be allowed to see the fire and light, at first he would be blinded. Then afterwards, as the things passing out he must be confused and believe that shadows are truer then the reality. If he went back to the cave then darkness would fill his eyes, and may he would not be able to make the shadows as he experienced. Now his fellow prisoners would believe that his eyes were cleaned out, and they would want to kill the person who was trying to make them go into the sunlight.
As revealed by the story of the man from the cave confusion was the movement from darkness to light and from light to darkness. The same could be happen to the soul and people may not laugh at other when they see them confused by things in life.
It is clear that uneducated people with no experience of truth, as well people who finish their education will never rule. Then he said that people should be given four types of education.
1.      Physical education
2.      Poetry
3.      Mathematics
4.      Astronomy
5.      Harmonies
The education that they are looking for must be useful for warriors. Early education relate with the sports because sports and games are essential for physical and mental growth of the child. Mathematics is also very important education of the child according to Plato everything is always take place in numbers. He emphasised on two fields that is geometry and astronomy they move on to examine whether geometry would be beneficial to the soul or not. After the age of thirty the person selected for the dialectic. They get more education for five years and at last they must rule the city and their duty is to educate the other people. Now the discussion will be on type of people who to be taught these things. First one should learn and must to be good in it. Then selected people will be honour to prove their abilities.
So, dialectics is must as they must engage in it for twice when they engaged in physical education. Then they will rule in the military offices of the young and had experienced. When they will about fifty then they must be taken to see the light and spend their lives by ruling the city. As education makes individual good and good men conquer the battle and education gives the victory. Then Plato find in the life of man intellectual rules the desires by control their action, soldier’s virtue is honour and industrial people dedicated for trade and making for money. According to him education should be in different stages and each stage has their on importance and qualities and the same importance of education for women.  Women should get the same training in music and gymnastic as well in the art and war like men. Moreover education must be provided according to the abilities and qualities of the students.
When their turn comes to rule, however, they must do it because it is necessary, and not because it is beautiful, and keeping in mind that they must constantly educate those younger than them so that they may rule one day.
Socrates adds that this could all be possible if the current ruler sends everyone in the city older than ten out to the farms and takes over the children, raising them as discussed.This is the theory which was presented by Plato.    
              
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               SUBMITTED BY UZMA DAVID                                                                                                  B.ED STUDENT                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                           

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